Use this passage to refer to questions 1 to 5:
Proponents of legalized gambling tend to stress its economic benefits while opponents point to its social costs. Because communities that embrace gambling experience both negative and positive impacts, Native American tribal leaders, governors, mayors, and citizens need to know which effects are more significant. However, much of the existing research on the economic impact of gambling is flawed by insufficient data, poor or underdeveloped methodology, or researchersí biases. Furthermore, high-quality and relevant research focusing on the social effects of gambling is virtually nonexistent.
Much of the research used to support the introduction of legalized gambling is based on testimonial evidence of casino employees who enthusiastically describe better jobs, improved health and retirement benefits, and new homes and vehicles obtained through work for casinos. In a survey conducted by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC), for example, respondents in five out of nine communities surveyed cited new employment opportunities as a "very positive advantage" of gambling. In the same vein, statistical information from Atlantic City, where casino gambling was introduced in 1977, indicates that the unemployment rate decreased from 12.2 percent in 1976 to 7.8 percent in 1998. However, such positive reports often ignore other facts, such as the failure to achieve expected economic benefits and the impact on existing small business owners. In the same NORC study cited above, respondents in the remaining four communities surveyed indicated that unemployment remained a problem. In the case of Atlantic City, the Restaurant and Tavern Association reported that the number of non-casino restaurants and taverns dropped from 311 in 1978 to 66 in 1998. Mixed research findings can also be found with respect to Native American tribal communities. Many tribal members affirm that the advent of casinos has provided jobs; made possible improved hospitals, clinic facilities and schools; and provided resources to make investments in other industries and enterprises. However, some employees in tribal casinos complain about lack of job security, absence of federal and state antidiscrimination laws, and lack of workersí compensation benefits.
Social costs of gambling are also important to regulatory decisions. However, social costs have not been adequately studied, and identification of the social effects of gambling is hampered by the tendency of individuals who suffer from negative effects from gambling also to suffer from other addictive disorders, thus complicating the process of attributing negative effects to any one cause. Furthermore, in destination casino resort areas, the economic benefits are captured locally while most of the social costs are exported elsewhere Ė that is, to where the gamblers actually reside. A broader geographical perspective may lead to a far different conclusion than a locally focused study. In order for elected officials and their constituents to choose an appropriate direction with respect to legal gambling, high quality research is needed that will focus on both the social and economic impacts of this industry.
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to:
(A) reconcile conflicting points of view
(B) analyze a social issue
(C) advocate further research
(D) challenge a research finding
(E) summarize a research finding
2. In the first paragraph the author is primarily concerned with:
(A) questioning a need
(B) articulating a thesis
(C) presenting a hypothesis
(D) predicting an outcome
(E) describing existing research
3. The author refers to "testimonial evidence" in the first sentence of Paragraph 2 most likely in order to:
(A) imply a lack of rigor in identifying evidence to be included
(B) indicate that the evidence was given under oath
(C) suggest that a rigorous standard in including evidence was followed
(D) emphasize the probative value of the statements in question
(E) draw a contrast with the results of the survey referenced in the following sentence
4. The author refers to the unemployment rate in Atlantic City most likely in order to:
(A) indicate a problem with the NORC survey
(B) provide an example of evidence cited in favor of legalized gambling
(C) illustrate that a correlation does not necessarily represent causality
(D) confirm the validity of the NORC survey
(E) suggest a negative consequence of legalized gambling
5. According to the passage, the geographical breadth of a study of the effects of destination casino gambling would have which of the following impacts?
(A) Studies of smaller geographical areas are likely to show less social and economic impact.Passage II
(B) Studies of larger geographical areas are likely to show more economic impact and less social impact.
(C) Studies of smaller geographical areas are likely to show less social impact and more economic impact
(D) Studies of larger geographical areas are likely to show more significant impact.
(E) The size of the geographical area would not have significant impact on the findings of a study.
Refer to the passage below for questions 6 to 10.
The publication of a substantially complete human genome sequence has the potential to enable scientists to turn their attention to studying the significance of genetic variation, which is today at the core of research on cancers, coronary heart disease, high blood pressure, neurologic and psychiatric disorders, and other diseases. Many of these diseases are influenced by both genetics and environmental exposure. The latter influence has been studied, to date, at high levels of exposure. Now, if gene expression in microarray assays and protein expression in proteomic studies can be analyzed into well-differentiated patterns, such research should lead to vastly improved capability to address questions about low-level exposure to chemicals and to ionizing radiation, particularly in individuals with genetic susceptibility. That issue is currently among the most controversial and uncertain aspects of environmental health and risk assessment. Provided that barriers are not erected that prevent researchers from having access to identifiable genetic information for such studies, the marriage of genetics and public health should usher in a golden age for the science of environmental health.
A barrier looms, however, that could block the large population studies needed to answer questions about environmental exposure and its impact: ill conceived proposals at the state and national levels aimed at protecting the confidentiality of genetic information. One legislative proposal, introduced as "the Genetic Privacy Act," would require complex procedures for informed consent, review, and management of genetic records. The requirements for individual consent in this act may be impractical for population studies involving valuable genetic samples and/or data previously collected on thousands of subjects. Another proposal, focusing primarily on genetic testing and care of individual patients, would mandate that all identifiers be removed from genetic data before such data is placed in a database. However, the genetic linkage and association studies required for progress in human genetics, genetic epidemiology, and ecogenetics cannot be conducted with anonymous databases.
A better alternative exists that can appropriately balance demand for privacy with scientific research. Consideration should be given to requiring "Certificates of Confidentiality," with concomitant designation of accountability and delineation of required procedures for genetic studies, analogous to those currently issued by the federal government for alcohol and substance abuse studies. This system of certification, accountability, and procedural safeguards has worked effectively to allow access to confidential alcohol and substance records for appropriate research while protecting individual privacy.
6. The passage is chiefly concerned with:
(A) warning that proposed regulations may hamper valuable scientific research
(B) arguing against the regulation of human genetic information
(C) demonstrating the benefits of genetic research
(D) advocating protection of individual privacy with respect to genetic information
(E) recommending a method of controlling access to genetic information
7. The author most probably mentions several specific types of diseases in the first sentence of the passage to:
(A) encourage scientists to direct their attention to the core issues of human disease
(B) suggest the necessity of regulations to limit environmental exposure to chemicals and ionizing radiation
(C) identify those illnesses caused by high levels of exposure to chemicals and ionizing radiation
(D) emphasize the importance of genetic research to real human problems
(E) identify those illnesses having the capability to be triggered by relatively low levels of exposure to chemicals and ionizing radiation
8. It can be inferred that the proposal described in the last sentence of Paragraph 2 would be ineffective because it would:
(A) compromise the privacy of test subjects
(B) eliminate a condition necessary for successful research
(C) render the study of human genetics impossible
(D) require generalizing from the experience of individual patients
(E) violate the provisions of the Genetic Privacy Act
9. Which of the following best describes the structure of the second paragraph of the passage?
(A) Two proposals are described, and a shortcoming of each is identified.
(B) Two proposals are described and a shortcoming common to both is identified.
(C) A proposal is described, and a correction is suggested.
(D) A warning is made about two proposals, and a third proposal adopts the best features of each.
(E) Two proposals are contrasted and a third is alluded to.
10. The author implies that there currently exists a need for:
(A) removal of all barriers protecting privacy in genetic research
(B) simplification of the conditions of the Genetic Privacy Act
(C) strict guidelines protecting the privacy of a small number of individuals
(D) investigation into high levels of exposure to radiation hazards
(E) data that analyze the response of test subjects to everyday environmental factors