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    this is my last posting..Please read!!!!

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    • Oxybutinin used with urinary incontinence and OAB
    • t1/2 = (0.693/ Vd) / Cl
    • Don’t store pacitaxel in a PVC bags
    • Cefoxitin (Mefoxin) is only available by IV, therefore NOT well absorbed when given orally.
    • Destruction of many nuclei in body, such as cancer, creates increase in blood level of URIC ACID
    • You Don’t want active metabolites produced in sedative medications.
    • Inhibits translocation of growing peptide of mRNA = erythromycin (treats Mycoplasam Pneumoniae
    • Nafcillin does NOT require dose adjustment in patients with renal failure.
    • The following is considered to be part of the multifactorial nature of pain assessment and treatment: Physical Pain, Physical disability, Financial Constraints
    • Sedation is not desired in chronic pain, A rapid onset of action is unimportant in treatment of chronic pain.
    • If allergic to salicylates you would be allergic to: Percodan (Oxycodone & ASA), SOMA compound (carisoprodol & ASA)
    • With Dalmane ((Flurazepam)-benzo)) what labels: Medication can only be used for person prescribed, Cause drowsiness, Cause Physical Impairment
    • What is the benefit of using SOMA instead of Flexeril: Does not cause as much Tachycardia
    • Tyelnol #3 antidote: Mucomyst and Nalaxone
    • Cyclobenzaprine(Flexeril) has similar side effect profile compared to Nortriptyline because Flexeril is structurally similar to TriCyclics Antidepressants.
    • What is indicated for spasticity of MS: Baclofen
    • Phenytoin causes gingival hyperplasia, ataxia, hirsutism
    • Refuse order if you get Doxorubicin 60 mg/m sq for 3 days, then 30mg/ m for 4 days. Real dosage= 60-75mg / m once 21 dosing
    • Vd = dose/ initial blood concentration
    • Superinfection is most likely to occur during therapy with: Tetracyclines
    • A compitive inhibitor of an enzyme will: bind to the same site as the substrate
    • Hydromophone (Dilaudid) is the most potent and Codiene is the least potent.
    • Do a pregnancy test prior if going to give Misoprostol.
    • Early stages for Alzheimers disease IS interference with daily living activities, not wandering or hallicuinations
    • Donepezil (Aricept) is a cholinesterase inhibitor similar to Tacrine (Cognex). Tacrine increases Acetycholine levels.
    • If allergic to Codeine then you would be allergic to Robitussin AC.
    • Tavist-D (Clemastine & pseudopedrine) cause anticholinergic
    • In Alzheimers you would want to give lowest anticholinergic activity TCA which would be Desipramine (Norpramine)
    • Procrit is given SQ, Usual dose 2000-20,000 units
    • Respiratory alkalosis and metabolic acidosis is caused by Salicylates
    • Amp, Clindamycin, Linolizid causes Pseudo colitis
    • Abrupt cessation of glucocorticoids will produce an Addison like crisis (Hypotension, Hypoglycemia, Hyponatremia, Hyperkaemia)
    • Most appropriate treatment for third degree burns is Silver Sulfadiazine. Rules of Nines is for assessing burns.
    • One Half Life is reaches 50% steady state, Two half lives = 75% steady state, Three half lives = 87.5%, Four half lives = 93.75%
    • Primary organism that causes dental caries = Gram-Positive Bacteria
    • Azithromycin is safe to use in Third Trimester.
    • Which hormones promote protein synthesis in human body growth hormone, insulin.
    • Ace inhibitors cause hyperkalemia & hyponatremia.
    • Phenytoin follows zero order kinetics.
    • Sodium Bicarb is sterilized by membrane filtration.
    • Apomorphine is NOT administered via deep IM injection, but SQ.
    • Which chemicals may be used to make an acetic acid solution less acidic = Sodium Acetate, Potassium Acetate
    • Which DMARD requires TB testing before using Infliximab (Remicade)
    • Blood pressure – wear stethoscope with earpieces angled forward
    • Hepatitis – AST, ALT elevations, malaise, weakness
    • Endocet (Oxy and APAP) causes Miosis, NOT mydriasis
    • Alcoholics have high incidence of gram negatives infections (Klebiseilla) – use cefotaxime
    • Before 48 hours CAP, after 48 hours of admission Nosocomial (Pseudomonas A. = caused by ventilators, Nosocomial)- Treat with 3rd generation cephalosporin + aminoglycaside
    • Clindamycin is used to treat serious anerobic infections
    • TB treatment – isoniazid + rifampin
    • Rate of drug absorption would be increased in patients WITH Carbonated beverages, Cold beverages (NOT acidic beverages)
    • Niacin is a constituent of = Coenzyme NAD [Riboflavin is conenzyme of FAD & FMN]
    • Treat Diabetic Coma – insulin
    • Zagam (sparifloxacin) is a flouroquinolone
    • Aldosterone results in decreased sodium ions excreted in urine and an increased potassium.
    • Tamsulosin (Flomax) does not affect orthostatic blood pressure changes
    • Digitalis slows conduction at AV node. Atropine increases conduction at AV node.
    • Calcium Carb.(OTC), Cholistyramine, Amitryptiyline. (Rx)
    • The antihistamine that has the worst anticholinergic activity (greater constipation) is Clemastine (Tavist) & Benadryl
    • TCA that has the least anticholinergic activity is (less constipation) is Desipramine (Norpramine). Elavil (amitryptiline) has the most anticholinergic activity.
    • Etravasation for Chemo drugs: Ice for all chemos except warm compress for Vincristine, Vinblastine, Etoposides.
    • Warfarin monitored by PT, Heparin by PTT
    • Flagyl has disulfarim reaction associated with it (ALCOHOL)
    • What is seen with Ulcerative Colitis and not Chrohn’s disease = bloody diarrhea
    • For chrohns disease use prednisone tabs for flare ups
    • Of corticosteroids the most potent is Betamethasone and least potent is cortisone
    • Colestid is like cholestyramine is like Welchol --- Bile sequestrants bind to everything so don’t administer with anything (like multi vitamin)
    • Traveller’s Diarrhea is caused by E. Coli, Campylobacter jejuni (Use Cipro to treat-or florou)
    • All Sulfonyureas cause phontosensitvity, hypoglycemia, anemia
    • Prednisone brand name is Deltasone
    • Butterfly or winged is most closely associated with which injection technique = IV
    • Which lipoprotein transport triglycerides to peripheral tissues in the body = VLDL
    • Which solution best matches salts in human body = LR
    • Basic chemical structure of PCN differ from Ceph by = it has a SIX atom ring
    • Topical decongestants don’t use prolonged = rebound congestion
    • Nifedipine will cause tachycardia and cause another angina attack on someone who has angina.
    • Vd = expressed as Volume and volume/ kg of body weight
    • Weak bases (amphetamine, qunidine) overdoses can be eliminated by giving weak acid – Ammonium Chloride, asorbic acid
    • The strongest magnitude of calcium flux regarding receptor sites are Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor
    • Products formed by the body metabolism of alcohol acetic acid and acetaldehyde
    • Acetazolamide causes hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis and drowsiness, tingling in arms.
    • Can cause side effects at therapeutic doses and metabolized by zero order kinetics = phenytoin (dilantin)
    • Active ingredient in Ketostix is nitroprusside
    • Oral sustained release dosage forms usually contain drugs with half-lives in the range of: 4-8 hours
    • Caffeine inhibits phosphodiestrase (enhances performance)
    • Acetylcistine (Mucomyst) is used for Tyl overdose
    • Ibutilide is Class III, same as Amiarodone
    • Spans and Twans (polysorbates) are chemically nonionic surfactants
    • Vanishing Creams ingredients Triethanolamine stearate
    • Proteins, Carbs, Lipids are formed by removal of water between each building block
    • Long term starvation (starvation diet) builds up what chemical in body = Acetoacetic Acid
    • What kind of diuretic would you use if a patient has a history of calcium oxalate renal stones – thiazide diuretic (HCTZ)
    • Liver extraction ratio number = Desire low value, value reflects results or first pass effect, is amount of fraction of drug lost due to first pass effect
    • Use VMA test in young kids (less than 15) if you have to choose
    • What bacteria is found in animal bites = Pateurella multocida (gram negative rods)
    • LVP (Large Volume Parenterals) must = not contain antimicrobial preservatives, not be in volumes greater than 1 liter (NOT ISOTONIC)
    • Vitamin B6 with transamination, the amino group of a given amino acid is transformed into a keto acid
    • Danazol (Danocrine) is used in treatment of endometriosis
    • A confirmatory test for HIV = Western Blot test
    100. 1 ml of fluid = 20 drops from a dropper bottle
    101. If a Narcotic Abuser has not taken their huge doses for a week or so and then they take a huge dose(as before) it will cause toxicity. It will cause respiratory acidosis and cause increased PCO2 (body will try to correct with increase HCO3
    102. Angle closure glaucoma = severe pain and substantial visual loss, reddened eye and steamy cornea, hard eyeball
    103. To treat acute signs of acute-angle closure glaucoma use = Acetazolamide (IV)
    104. Open Angle Glaucoma signs and symptoms= Bilateral in nature (NOT unilateral), has insidious onset action, gradual loss of peripheral vision
    105. Topical Beta-1 selective agent = Betoptic (betaxolol)
    106. Prostaglandin analog indicated for treatment of open angle glaucoma = latanoprost
    107. Least anticholinergic antihistamine = cetirizine (Zyrtec), allegra, or claritin
    108. Open angle glaucoma comes from taking prednisone chronicly.
    109. The most intense miosis and muscle contraction of the eye is caused by = Echothiophate (Phospholine Iodine – cholinesterase inhibitor)
    110. Someone with Clinical Depression what Beta blocker do you give to cause least effects = Atenolol (lowest lipophilic crossing into CNS)
    111. Exacerbating glaucoma condition= cyclobenzaprine (flexeril), so don’t give
    112. In eye exams they use – Contrast agents and topical anesthetics (NOT miotic agents)
    113. Dipivefrin (Propine) is a Sympathomimetic class to treat glaucoma.
    114. Isopto-carbachol causes palpitations, arythmias, tachycardia
    115. Phenothiazines cause tardive dyskinesia
    116. Heparin lock strength = 10 units/ ml of heparin
    117. Epinephrine is used to treat OPEN-angle glaucoma
    118. Deficiency in Vitamin B1 = Beriberi
    119. Mineral for carbonic anhydrase enzyme= zinc
    120. Alpha-antagonist least likely to affect the heart – Tamsulosin (Flomax)
    121. Sulfonamide antibiotics are against folate synthesis bacteria
    122. Vitamin E = prevents desctruction of Vitamin A and fatty acids
    123. Potency does not effect the extent of local anesthetics absorption.
    124. Dopamine is the immediate precursor to the synthesis of Norepinephrine.
    125. Alcholics can have low theophyline levels because enhance liver metabolism
    126. Amantadine stimulates the release of Dopamine
    127. Phosphofrutokinase I is directly affected by Citrate.
    128. Salicylism does NOT lead to xerostomia (dry mouth), but instead sweating
    129. Thiazide diuretics are related to sulfonamides = so patient would be allergic to them
    130. Don’t use anticholinergics (Benzotropine) with antipsychotics
    131. Tachycardia is also a symptom of hypoglycemia
    132. For blood glucose levels = whole blood glucose levels are 15% lower than plasma glucose
    133. Microvascular complication of Diabetes = Nephropathy
    134. Ophthalmic examination every year = diabetics
    135. Haloperidol has a long half life (NOT a short one)
    136. Cystic fibrosis = high salt content in their sweat
    137. CF = give mucomyst (N-acetylcysteine) to break up the mucous
    138. Pravastatin has the least plasma protein binding among the statins. 50%
    139. PT time =12-14 secs
    140. First order chemo = kills a constant proportion of cancer cells
    141. Coagulase test = to determine if bacteria is part of the normal skin flora
    142. Use Colchicine for acute attacks of gout, NOT probenacid or sulfpyranzole
    143. Bismuth subsalicylate does NOT effect the CYP450 system.
    144. Mild persistent asthma – symptoms occur > 2 times a week, but less than 1 time a day
    145.Tussi-Organidin NR = contains expectorant(guafenisine) and antitussive (codeine)
    146. Take Clonidine at bedtime to prevent syncope.
    147. If allergic to opoids don’t use Robitussin AC (codeine) use Robitussin DM
    148. Can use Metoprolol or Atenolol for asthma patients (B1 selective)
    149. Bitolterol (Tornalate) and Albuterol can be used for acute signs and symptoms of asthma
    150. Most accurate BP monitor is Mercury sphyganmoter
    151. Ethyl alcohol ideal antiseptic conc. = 70%
    152. From slight tap, unilateral spasm of the orbiculis oculi = caused by hypocalcemia
    153. LD50 refers to = median lethal dose
    154. Inverse agonist = intrinsic activity equal to -1, agonist equal to 1, antagonism = 0
    155. First screening test for HIV is ELISA test, (Western blot is used for confirmation)
    156. Beginning HIV regimen = 2 NRTI + 1 Protease inhibitor
    157. Goal of HIV therapy = suppress plasma HIV RNA levels below detectable levels
    158. Ritonavir – enzyme inhibitor therefore will interact with warfarin
    159. Combivir is similar to TMP/SMX when it comes to comparing side effects (neutropenia, hemat)
    160. Elevated transiminase and bilirubin levels = isoniazid adr (hepatitis)
    161. For HIV = Use combination therapy, drug therapy based on CD4 count and HIV-Rna levels, HIV-RNA levels will indicate what will happen to CD4 count soon
    162. Ph is equivalent to the pka of an acid at = one-half of the neutralization point
    163. Viramune- MOA is binds directly to reverse transcriptase and blocks RNA-dependent and DNA polymerase activities (non-nucleside)
    164. Acyclovir is drug of choice for herpes simplex virus.
    165. If you have a HIV patient w/ less than CD4 count of 50 (ex: 39)= have CMV, then use foscarnet to treat
    166. Cryptococcus Neoformans cause meningitis in HIV infected individuals = treat with Amphotericin B(severe chills and fever) and flucytosine
    167. PCP in HIV patients is treated with TMP/SMX. HIV not transmitted thru saliva.
    168. Rifampin causes: red-orange saliva, hepatoxicity, and is an inducer (NOT an inhibitor)
    169. What will decrease as a result of infection w/ Aids virus: Helper cells, CD4 count, (NOT Complement)
    170. Multi-drug resistant TB is resistant to at least the combination of: rifampin and isoniazid
    171. Steroid hormones cause = stimulation of cellular protein synthesis
    172. Haris Benedict equation is useful for: estimate calories expended by patient
    173. Partial seizures = treatment is carbamazepine
    174. What is available as an aresol for nasal inhalation: Beclomethasone
    175. Interferon alpha effects theophylline
    176. Sumatriptan can cause hypertensive crisis in rare occasions
    177. If a child is losing weight despite increase in food intake deserves a serum glucose test.
    178. Lacrimal fluid Ph is 7.4.
    179. Drug manufacture uses: Cmax, TMax, and AUC to compare bioequivalence
    180. Galantimine (Reminyl) is used to treat Alzheimers
    181. Lactic acidosis can occur from metformin = elevated anion gap (N=10-12)
    182. Parabens may be included in pharmaceutical products as =antimicrobial preservatives
    183. What will cause an irreversible form of parkinsonism = MPTP
    184. Ketoacidosis is typical of type 1 diabetes, not type 2 diabetes
    185. A toxoid is a type of = antigen


    Question #4


    • Which of following drugs have therapeutic activity similar to Aricept: Exelon, Cognex
    • Inactivcated influenza vaccine = can’t be given to people allergic to eggs. Over 65 y/o = give the pneumococcal vaccine. Every 10 years get the tetanus booster.
    • Methimazole (Tapazole) is an antithyroid drug.
    • Streptoccocus Pneumonia is treated with Penicillin as first line for pneumoccocal pneumonia.
    • Among PPI’s the one that effects the CYP450 system the most is Prilosec
    • Sulfasalazine (Azulfidine) is used for treatment of Ulcerative colitis.
    • Level of emotogenic for chemo: 5 – streptozosin, mechlorethamine ; 4 –Carboplatin, Procarbazine ; 3 –Ifosfamide, 2- Etoposide, taxels, topotecan ; 1- Bleomycin, bulsulfan, vinblastine, vincristine, hydroxurea
    • Patients with G-6DP deficiency will produce hemolytic anemia if prescribed a sulfonamide(TMP/SMX), quninines.
    • Thiazide diuretics acts at the distal tubules of the nephron.
    • Isotretinoin (Accutane) has = Teratogenity (category X), Photosensitivity, but NOT carcogenic
    • Caffeine belongs to the xanthines group
    • If you see Streptococcus salivarius strain MG (indicates Mycoplasam) then use a Macrolide Erythromycin to treat
    • Verapamil is used to treat vasospastic angina and hypertension.
    • Amitriptyline (antidepressants) causes SIADH (decreased osmalarity, hyponatremia)
    • Worst choice for asthma of a beta blocker is propranolol
    • Carvedilol (coreg) (beta blocker) will mask the signs of hypoglycemia
    • Add-Vantage unit is most closely associated with = a vial attached to a mini bag
    • Tubocurarine(skeletal muscle relaxant) interacts with gentamcyin(aminoglycosides)
    • Chlorhexidine gluconate MOA is most similar to Hexachlorophene (both used for surgical scrubbing)
    • Phenelzine, isocarboxazid, tranylcypromine (all MAOI’s) will interact with tyramine foods.- pt is in hypertensive crisis as one of effects
    • Propranolol is used to treat Ventricular tachycardias.
    • Excess parathyroid hormone causes localized bone reabsorption in chronic renal failure that don’t have dialysis
    • Sumatriptan MOA is Serotonin 1D agonist.
    • Vinka alkaloids (Vincristine) is specific for the M phase of the cell cycle
    • Ergotamine tartrate does NOT come in the form of an injectible.
    • Thiamine deficiency is seen in chronic alcoholics and causes neurological damage.
    • For major depressive illness what is not true = the symptoms can be accounted for bereavement
    • Trazadone can cause priapism without stimulation.
    • TCA’s(amitriptyline-elavil) take 2-4 weeks to start working. Used for sleep disorder since has major drowsiness
    • What causes major depressive illness: antibiotics, OC’s, Corticosteroids
    • Amitriptyline is metabolized into nortriptyline and MOA is inhibiting amine reuptake at presypnatic neuron
    • Clonazepam would produce the fastest relief for panic attacks
    • Cromolyn sodium inhaler MOA is inhibits degradation of mast cells
    • Sodium nitroprusside in treatment of HTN.(crisis)
    • If receiving glucocorticoids long term you should take a Calcium supplement to prevent osteoporosis
    • Acid Buffering effect of antacids (Maalox) will last 1-2 hours
    • Of topical anesthetics bupivicaine, tetricaine has longest duration and Procaine has shortest duration
    • Ace inhibitor (Captopril) prescribed for MI causes dry cough.
    • Bacterial endocarditis to tricuspid values = caused by illicit drug use
    • Don’t crush or chew Nexium capsules, but you can sprinkle them in applesause, DON’T take with food
    • Haloperidol is NOT a phenothiazine (it is a phenylbutylpiperadine derivative)
    • Tylenol advantage over Aspirin = less GI irritation, decreased effect on uric acid excretion
    • For long term anticoag therapy= Do Heparin for 7-10 days and warfarin regimen on same day
    • With Peptic Ulcers the common cause is = H. Pylori infection
    • Patency of the ductus in infants can be prolonged by prostaglandins, Use indomethacin to treat
    • For Dental surgery, intense pain is experienced at 10-20 hours after procedure
    • Flagyl and Vanco is indicated for treatment of C. Diff
    • Cocaine solutions are used in nasal surgery for their = anesthetic action, local vasoconstriction, NOT antiseptic
    • Lindane is Kwell
    • (Zithromax) Azithromycin interacts w/: Al and Mg antacids, NOT pcn’s or alcohol
    • Oxybutinin(Ditropan) causes confusion –strong anticholinergic effect
    • Cyclosphosphamide causes hemoragic cystitis (blood in urine)
    • For streptococcal cellulites use Clarithromycin (especially if allergic to PCN’s
    • Sublingual nitroglycerin MOA is vasodilation of vascular smooth muscle
    • DOC for Aspergillus is amphotericin
    • Tylenol overdose = mucomyst (n-acetylcistine)
    • For obsessive-compulsive behavior = use TCA’s (Clomipramine)or SSRI’s
    • Keflex is in the same class as Ancef (1st generation cephalosporins)
    • Norpace is in the same class as Procainamide (Class 1A)
    • All are ingredients of sunscreens except: methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen)
    • Staph Aureus causes pneumonia
    • Malignant Hyperthermia (increase in core body temperature and HR), you use dantrolene to treat it, MOA is it interferes with the release of CA from the sarcoplasmic reticulum
    • Calcium Channel blockers interact with Digoxin= must reduce digoxin dose, NOT to d/c nitro or propanolol
    • A history of sinus infection does NOT require prophylactic anti-infective treatment
    • Cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril) is chemically structured like TCA which are anticholinergic
    • Hiv patient with esophageal candidiasis being treated w/ fluconozale and is not working you should: perform a upper GI endoscopy and biopsy any ulcerations
    • Prehypertension is classified as 120-139 systolic.
    • Scopolamine causes one dilated eye (on cruise ship)
    • Labetolol would antagonize both the vascular and cardiac actions(alpha 1 and 2, beta 1) of NE
    • Corticosteroids (prednisone,methylprednsisone) has 5 times the potency of hydrocortisone. Dexamethasone and bethamesone is 30 times greater.
    • Amantadine(Symmetrel) can be used to counteract EPS symptoms of antipsychotic meds
    • Amitriptyline can cause a red ring around surrounding iris & elevated intraocular pressure- intense pain in eye because of anticholinergic effects on open angle glaucoma
    • For Diptheria may use active immunization = toxoid
    • An increased T4 (serum thyroxine) is secondary to an increase in TBG (thyroid binding globulin)
    • Vitamin usually responsible for the yellow color of the urine = Vitamin B2
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  2. #2
    Within my grasp! sub_zer0's Avatar
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    Wow!!
    Ron
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    Eager!
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    hi phamico,where are you off to? can we presume that you have passed naplex?!!
    just jocking, this is great info, thanks for taking time to do it and good luck with future endevours.
    Pharmjay
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    An Urch Guru Pundit Swami Sage KingTuT's Avatar
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    thank u alottttttttttttttttttttttttttt my friend & we all wish u all the best in thy future , now u can enjoy the the fruits that u have been planting for looooong time

    GOOD LUCK
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  5. #5
    Within my grasp! takku's Avatar
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    Congrats Phamico,, Wish yoa ALl the Best for your future endurance...

    Thanks for posting this informative things,,
    take care takku
    Waiting for Naplex Result,,,,
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    Eager!
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    LANARAJA thanks for posting on this old thread so we are able to see it again , that's valuable information ,, please if you find any other useful threads just post it , thank you
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    2 out of 2 members found this post helpful. Good post? Yes | No
    For last week revision for Naplex exam, I think this might be helpful. Questions:Mother has gestational diabetes, what is likely to occur when the baby is born. Mother also has epilepsy & is taking tegretol.
    I. high birth weight II. Baby may have congenital abnormalities III. Baby is likely to have diabetes
    Answer: I & II Tegretol is a class D drug
    What strength will Albuterol 0.5% end up based on an order to mix it with 2.5 mL normal saline? 0.083%
    Isosorbide dinitrate is dosed BID, what regimen is best 7 am & 12 noon, 7 am & 7 pm, 9 am & 9 pm, 8 am & 5 pm? 8 am & 5 pm to allow nitrate free period (same as removing NTG patches at bedtime)
    What substitute can you use for desitin ointment (Balmex, Boudreaux’s Butt Paste)? Zinc oxide
    Precose counseling information:
    I. Take 30 minutes before meal II. Causes gas III. Should not take if meal skipped Answer: II & III
    What treatment would increase antibiotic compliance? Patient receiving zithromax 1 tsp QD x 5days
    Augment, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime axetil, doxycycline Answer: the usual method to improve compliance for any type of drug is to reduce the number of doses that must be taken each day & to give a drug with the fewest uncomfortable or dangerous SE (I would chose ceftriaxone- IM single dose treatment)
    Which of the following could you give a patient on NTG?
    I. Cialis II. Muse (alprostadil) III. Caverject (alprostadil)
    Answer: II & III- alprostadil is prostaglandin used for erectile dysfunction & patent ductus arteriosus Available as: intracavernosal Kit, intracavernosal powder for solution, intracavernosal solution, intraurethral Suppository, & intraurethral solution Alprostadil (Prostin VR)
    Patient requesting antihistamine eye drop & having a dark spot in vision- refer to MD
    Which of the following is available in a liquid formulation?
    I. NTG II. Hydroxyzine III. Digoxin Answer: II & III
    Which is the shortest acting insulin?
    Humulin N, Humulin U, Humalog, or regular Answer: Humalog
    Who should not get a flu shot? An infant in day care; 32 yo type II diabetic; 65 yo retired lady; 35 yo nurse working in hospital Answer: 32 yo type II diabetic
    Which of the following cannot be self monitored?
    Glucose level; K level; cholesterol levels; hormone used in pregnancy test Answer: K levels
    Cytoxan is most similar to mechlorethamine, procarbazine, or 5-FU? Answer: mechlorethamine
    A patient with Traveler’s diarrhea too PeptoBismol 4 tsp Q ½ hour. After 3 days he began experiencing ringing in the ears. What does he have? Bismuth toxicity or salicylate toxicity?
    Answer: salicylate toxicity Bismuth toxicity would cause neurotoxicity
    Which of the following are OTC hemorrhoid treatments:
    I. TUCKs pads II. Nupercainal ointment III. Rowasa Answer: I & II
    Which of the following is an ER Morphine?
    A. MSIR B. MS Contin C. Diluadid D. Oxycontin Answer: B
    Which of the following agents should be administered to a person exposed to Anthrax?
    A. Flagyl B. Cipro C. Zovirax D. Valtrex Answer: B
    Erythromycin exhibits its anti-infective properties by- blocking protein synthesis via binding & inhibition of the 50-S subunit of bacterial ribosomes
    Patient has pseudomembranous colitis & allergy to metronidazole. Which of the patient’s medications could have caused the pseudomembrane colitis?
    A. Ibuprofen B. Tylenol C. Flagyl D. Cleocin E. Zantac
    Answer: D
    This person could be treated with?
    A. Flagyl B. Vancomycin C. Doxycycline D. Lincomycin E. Ampicillin Answer: B
    The DOC for the treatment of pseudomembraneous colitis is: A. Metronidazole B. Erythromycin C. Clindamycin D. Ampicillin E. Lincomycin Answer: A
    Which of the following NSAIDs has an ophthalmic preparation:
    A. Ibuprofen B. Naproxen C. Diclofenac D. Ketoprofen Answer: C- Voltaren
    Cedax acts by- inhibiting the use of pencillin binding proteins in bacterial cell wall synthesis
    Acetylcysteine in the treatment of CF is best given:
    A. IV B. By inhalation C. IM D. Orally Answer: B
    A patient is given a rx for fentanyl 100 mcg/hr patch for 1 month. How many boxes should you dispense?
    A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 4 E. 5 Answer: 2; 1 patch= 3 days, so you need 10 patches; comes in boxes of 5 patches so you need 2
    Which of the following is not an erythropoetin formulation?
    A. Epogen B. Procrit C. Aranesp D. Neupogen Answer: Neupogen
    Which of the following fluoroquinolones has an otic preparation?
    Answer: ofloxacin (Floxin- also has an ophthalmic); Eye drops only: levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin
    The use of this agent is CI in children?
    A. Erythromycin B. Bactrim C. Ciprofloxacin D. Cephalexin Answer: C
    What is the recommended daily dosage of calcium for an adult?
    A. 300-500 mg B. 600-800 mg C. 800-1000 mg D. 100-1500 mg Answer: D
    Due to difficulty in coordinating their inhalations, older patients should use:
    A. Nebulizer B. Peak flow meter C. Spacers D. Spirometer Answer: C Monitoring of asthma at home can be done with: A. Nebuli
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  8. #8
    Licensed RPh! Hebes123's Avatar
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    Thank you Divine06, can you post the link? The words are kind of difficult to read in your post.
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  9. #9
    Eager!
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    1 out of 1 members found this post helpful. Good post? Yes | No
    @ Hebes123, this is part of an e-mail a friend forwarded to me. I copied it and pasted on this forum and I checked it before I posted it , it was quite o.k but as soon as I hit the post reply button, those unimaginable characters begin to appear with it. I am equally surprise myself. I guess it is because of this forum's principles or so. Actually, I do not have a link for it. It came with what they call the flynn's note which is a kind of summary of everything. Mark you, there are few chapters not summarized here but you can make use of this at least the last week of revision. Many people who told me they scored high used it and I intend to use it in my last revision. I will try to paste it below. You may want to revise other things not summarized here.

    NAPLEX Review
    AIDS:
    • Initial treatment: NNRTI + 2 NRTIs or PI + 2 NRTIs
    • NRTIs:
      • MOA: interfere with HIV viral RNA-dependent DNA polymerase, resulting in chain termination & inhibition of viral replication
      • Class toxicities:
        • Lactic acidosis, sever hepatomegaly with steatosis
        • Most require renal dosing (except abacavir)
      • Do not use lamivudine & emtricitabine together (chemically similar)
      • Do not use zidovudine with stavudine together (both require thymidine for activation)
      • Do not use didanosine with stavudine during pregnancy (increased risk of lactic acidosis & liver damage)
      • The “D” drugs cause pancreatitis & peripheral neuropathy & lactic acidosis
        • ddI (didanosine), d4T (stavudine), ddC (zalcitabine)
      • Low pill burden
      • All are prodrugs requiring 2-3 phosphorylations for activation
      • Zidovudine (Retrovir):
        • AZT, ZDV
        • SE: bone marrow suppression, GI intolerance
        • Dosage forms available: IV, 200 mg (10 mg/mL); syrup 50 mg/5 mL in 240 mL; capsule, 100 mg & tablet 300 mg
      • Lamivudine (Epivir):
        • 3TC
        • Minimal toxicity
      • Abacavir (Ziagen):
        • ABC
        • SE: hypersensitivity reaction that can be fatal with rechallenge
      • Didanosine (Videx, Videx EC):
        • ddI
        • Take ½ hour before or 2 hours after meals (empty stomach)
        • SE: pancreatitis, peripheral neuropathy
      • Stavudine (Zerit):
        • D4T
        • SE: pancreatitis, peripheral neuropathy
      • Zalcitabine (Hivid):
        • ddC
        • SE: pancreatitis, peripheral neuropathy
      • Tenofovir (Viread):
        • TDF
        • SE: renal insufficiency, Fanconi syndrome
      • Emtricitabine (Emtriva):
        • FTC
        • Minimal toxicity
      • Combination products:
        • Zidovudine 300 mg + lamivudine 150 mg (Combivir)
        • Zidovudine 300 mg + lamivudine 150 mg + abacavir 300 mg (Trizivir)
        • Tenofovir 300 mg + emtricitabine 200 mg (Truvada)
        • Lamivudine 300 mg + abacavir 600 mg (Epzicom)
    • NNRTIs:
      • MOA: bind to reverse transcriptase at a different site than the NRTIs, resulting in inhibition of HIV replication
      • Class toxicities: rash & hepatoxicity
      • All should be dosed for hepatic impairment
      • Most are affected by food (except efavirenz)
      • Efavirenz is CI in pregnancy
      • Efavirenz (Sustiva):
        • EFV
        • Take on an empty stomach
        • SE: CNS side effect; false + cannabinoid test
      • Nevirapine (Viramune):
        • NVP
        • Autoinducer
        • SE: rash, symptomatic hepatitis, including fatal hepatic necrosis
      • Delavirdine (Rescriptor):
        • DLV
        • SE: rash, increased LFTs
    • PIs:
      • MOA: inhibit protease, which then prevents the cleavage of HIV polyproteins & subsequently induces the formation of immature noninfectious viral particles
      • All should be dosed for hepatic impairment
      • Most should be taken with food (except amprenavir & indinavir)
      • Amprenavir & fosamprenavir are chemically similar- avoid combination
      • Atazanavir & indinavir require normal acid levels in stomach for absorption
      • Ritonavir is the most potent
      • Lopinavir/ritonavir, ritonavir, & saquinavir gel caps require refrigeration
      • Class toxicities: lipodystrophy, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, bleeding in hemophiliace, osteonecrosis & avascular neocrosis of the hips, osteopenia & osteoporosis
      • All are CYP3A4 inhibitors
      • Lopinavir + ritonavir (Kaletra):
        • SE: GI intolerance
        • Refrigerate caps stable until date on label; stable for 2 months at room temperature
        • Can cause hyperglycemia
      • Atazanavir (Reyataz):
        • ATV
        • SE: increased indirect hyperbilirubinemia, prolonged Princeton Review interval
      • Fosamprenavir (Lexiva):
        • f-APV
        • SE: rash
        • Sulfonamide
        • Oral solution contains propylene glycol
      • Amprenavir (Agenerase):
        • APV
        • SE: rash
        • Sulfonamide
        • Avoid high fat meal
      • Saquinavir:
        • SQV-hard gel cap (HGC)- (Invirase):
          • SE: GI intolerance
          • Room temperature
        • SQV- soft gel cap (SGC)- (Fortovase):
          • SE: GI intolerance
          • Refrigerated caps stable until date on label; stable for 3 months at room temperature
        • HGC & SGC are not bioequivalent & should not be interchanged
      • Nelfinavir (Viracept):
        • NFV
        • SE: diarrhea
        • Needs 500 kCal of food for absorption; take after eating
      • Ritonavir (Norvir)
        • RTV
        • SE: GI intolerance
        • Refrigerated caps stable for 1 month at room temp
      • Indinavir (Crixivan):
        • IDV
        • SE: nephrolithiases- drink at least 48 oz. daily to prevent
        • Take on an empty stomach
    • Fusion inhibitors:
      • MOA: binds to gp41 on HIV surface, which inhibits HIV binding to CD4 cell
      • Enfuvirtide (Fuzeon)
        • T20
        • Salvage regimens
        • Reconstituted form should be stored in the refrigerator- stable for 24 hours Viracept, Norvir
    • Those available as suspensions: Nevirapine
    • Those available as a syrup or oral solution: Epivir, Ziagen, Videx, Kaletra, Agenerase,
    • Post-exposure Prophylaxis (PEP):
      • Start therapy within 1-2 hours of exposure
      • Length of therapy is 4 weeks
      • Treatment options:
        • AZT 200 mg po Q8h or 300 mg po Q12h AND 3TC(lamivudine) 150 mg po Q12h
        • AZT 200 mg po Q8h or 300 mg po Q12 + 3TC 150 mg po Q12h + Indinavir 800 mg Q8h
          • OR Nelfinvir 750 mg po Q8h or 1250 mg Q12h
    • PCP treatment:
      • A protozoan, but may be more closely related to fungi
      • Treat when CD4+ cells fall below 200
      • DOC: trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim DS) DS po QD
      • Alternatives:
        • TMP + dapsone
        • Atovaquone (Mepron)
        • Pentamidine (NebuPent; Pentam-300)
          • Comes as injection & powder for nebulization
        • Clindamycin + primaquine
        • Trimetrexate (NeuTrexin) + folinic acid
      • Treatment for PCP also covers prophylaxis for: toxoplasmosis
    • Macobacterium avium complex (MAC):
      • Treat when CD4+ cells fall below 50/mm3
      • DOC is azithromycin 1200 mg po Q week
    • CMV: Cytomegalovirus
      • Ganciclovir (Cytovene, Vitrasert):
        • Use: treatment of CMV retinitis in immunocompromised individuals, including patients with AIDS
        • CI: ANC <500/mm3 or PLT <25,000/mm3
        • Dosage forms:
          • Capsule (Cytovene)
          • Implant, intravitreal (Vitrasert)- 4.5 mg released gradually over 5-8 months
          • Injection, powder for reconstitution
            • Should be prepared in a vertical flow hood
            • Reconstitute powder with sterile water NOT bacteriostatic water because parabens may cause precipitation

    Alzheimer’s Disease:
    • Donepezil (Aricept):
      • Cholinesterase inhibitor
      • MOA: reversibly & noncompetitively inhibits centrally active acetylcholinesterase, the enzyme responsible for hydrolysis of acetylcholine
      • Available dosage forms: tablets, ODT
      • Max dose: 10 mg QD
    • Galantamine (Razadyne, Razadyne ER, Reminyl-old name):
      • Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor
      • Max dose:
        • IR tablet or solution: 24 mg/day (in 2 divided doses)
        • ER capsule: 24 mg/day
    • Memantine (Namenda):
      • Low affinity, non-competitive, voltage dependent NMDA receptor antagonist
      • Neuroprotective
      • Less cognitive decline & improves cognition in impaired patients
      • After depolarization, Namenda leaves the site & allows sodium & calcium entry into the cell
      • Behaves like magnesium
      • Approved for moderate to severe Alzheimer’s Disease
    • Rivastigmine (Exelon):
      • Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (central)
      • MOA: increases acetylcholine in the CNS through reversible inhibition of its hydrolysis by cholinesterase
      • SE: GI upset (titrate slowly to avoid)
      • Dosage forms: capsules & solution

    Anemia:
    • Folic acid deficiency would also be called: macrocytic anemia, pernicious anemia
    • Macrocytic (large cell):
      • Megaloblastic:
        • Vitamin B12 deficiency
          • Lack of intrinsic factor results in pernicious anemia
        • Folic acid deficiency
        • ↓Hct, Hgb, RBC, ↑ MCH
    • Normochromic, normocytic:
      • Aplastic anemia
      • Anemia of chronic disease
    • Hypochromic (low hemoglobin content), microcytic (small cell):
      • Iron deficiency
        • ↑ TIBC, ↓ MCV, MCH, MCHC, Hgb
      • Genetic anomalies: Sickle cell anemia, thalassemia
    • Treatment:
      • Darbepoetin Alpha (Aranesp):
        • Recombinant human erythropoietin
        • Caution in patients with HTN or with a hx of seizures
          • Can cause hypo- or hypertension
        • Available as an injection
      • Epoetin Alpha (Epogen):
        • Colony stimulating factor
        • Onset of action: several days
        • Peak effect: 2-3 weeks
        • SQ 1-3X per week
        • SE: HTN

    Antidotes:
    • Acetaminophen overdose:
      • Antidote: Acetylcysteine (Mucomyst, Acetadote):
        • MOA: thought to reverse APAP toxicity by providing substrate for conjugation with the toxic metabolites
        • Dose: oral- 140 mg/Kg followed by 17 doses of 70 mg/Kg Q4h; repeat dose if emesis occurs within 1 hour of administration
    • Albuterol overdose:
      • Antidote: propranolol or beta blocker
    • Anticholinergic overdose:
      • Antidote: Physostigmine (Antilirium):
        • Do not use if solution is cloudy or dark brown
    • Arsenic overdose:
      • Antidote: Succimer (Chemet) or dimercaprol (British anti-lewisite, BAL in oil)
    • Benzodiazepine overdose:
      • Antidote: flumazenil (Romazicon)
    • β-blocker overdose:
      • Antidote: glucagon (GlucaGen)
    • CCB overdose:
      • Antidote: calcium chloride 10% or glucagon (GlucaGen)
    • Carbamates overdose:
      • Antidote: atropine
    • Coumadin overdose:
      • Antidote: Vitamin K1 or phytonadione (Mephyton, AquaMEPHYTON); fresh frozen plasma
      • Dosage forms available for phytonadione: injection & tablet
    • Digoxin overdose:
      • Antidote: digoxin immune antibody fragment (Digibind, DigiFab)
    • Ethylene glycol (Antifreeze) overdose:
      • Antidote: ethyl alcohol; fomepizole (Antizol); pyridoxine (Aminoxin-OTC); sodium bicarbonate
    • Heparin overdose:
      • Antidote: protamine sulfate
    • Iron overdose:
      • Antidote: deferoxamine (Desferal)
      • Antidote: Polyethylene glycol (high molecular weight)
      • Lethal dose of iron is 180-300 mg/Kg
    • Isoniazid overdose:
      • Antidote: pyridoxine (Vitamin B6)

    • Lead overdose:
      • Antidotes:
        • Succimer (Chemet)
        • Dimercaprol; also called British anti-lewisite (only for lead encephalopathy)
        • Calcium disodium EDTA (calcium disodium versenate)
    • Leucovorin:
      • Antidote for folic acid antagonists (methotrexate, trimethoprim, pyrimethamine)
      • Water soluble vitamin
    • Magnesium overdose:
      • Death due to muscle relaxation (includes heart failure)
      • Antidote: calcium
    • Methanol or Ethylene glycol overdose:
      • Antidote: Ethanol 10%
      • Antidote: Fomepizole (Antizol)
        • AKA: 4-methylpyrazole or 4-MP
        • MOA: competitively inhibits alcohol dehydrogenase, an enzyme which catalyzes the metabolism of ethanol, ethylene glycol, & methanol to their toxic metabolites
        • ?Decreases metabolism of methanol (prevents metabolism)
    • Methemoglobinemia overdose:
      • Antidote: methylene blue
    • Opioid overdose:
      • Antidote: Naloxone (Narcan)
        • MOA: opioid antagonist that competes at all three CNS opioid receptors (mu, kappa, & delta)
      • Antidote: Nalmefene (Revex)
    • Organophosphates overdose:
      • Antidote: atropine or pralidoxime (Protopam)
    • Salicylate overdose:
      • Antidote: sodium bicarbonate
    • TCAs overdose:
      • Antidote: sodium bicarbonate
    • Type Ia antiarrhythmics overdose:
      • Antidote: sodium bicarbonate
    • Vecuronium overdose: & other nondepolarizing neuromuscular blockers
      • Antidote: edrophonium (Enlon, Reversol)

    Asthma:
    • Drugs available for nebulization:
      • Budesonide 0.25 & 0.5 mg (Pulmicort Respules®)
        • Shake well before using
        • Use with jet nebulizer connected to an air compressor
        • Administer with a mouthpiece or facemask
        • Do not use with an ultrasonic nebulizer
        • Do not mix with other medications
        • Rinse mouth after use
      • Cromolyn (Intal®)
        • Mast cell stabilizer
        • Use: adjunct in the prophylaxis of allergic disorders, including asthma; prevention of exercise-induced bronchospasm
          • Nasal: for prevention & treatment of seasonal & perennial allergic rhinitis
      • Albuterol
      • Ipratropium
      • Ipratropium & Albuterol
    • Drugs available as MDI:
      • Beclomethasone HFA 40 mcg/puff & 80 mcg/puff (QVAR®)
      • Flunisolide 250 mcg/puff (Aerobid®)
      • Fluticasone 44, 110, 220 mcg/puff (Flovent®)
      • Cromolyn (Intal®)
      • Nedocromil (Tilade®)
      • Albuterol (Proventil®, Ventolin®)
      • Pirbuterol (Maxair Autohaler®)
      • Ipratropium (Atrovent®)
      • Ipratropium & Albuterol (Combivent®)
    • Drugs available as turbuhaler:
      • Budesonide 200 mcg/inhalation (Pulmicort® Respules)
        • Inhaler should be shaken well immediately prior to use
    • Drugs available for dry powder inhalation (DPI):
      • Fluticasone (Flovent Rotadisk®)
      • Fluticasone-salmeterol (Advair Diskus®)
      • Formoterol (Foradil Aerolizer®)
      • Salmeterol (Servent Diskus®)
        • Stable for 6 weeks after removing foil
        • 1 inhalation BID
    • Drugs available as MDI/spacer:
      • Triamcinolone 100 mcg/puff (Azmacort®)
    • Class of drugs to use to prevent a child allergic to pollen from having an asthma attack- could use antihistamines, cromolyn or inhaled corticosteroids
    • A patient would monitor their asthma from home with a peak flow meter which measures the FEV1
      • Goal: 80% of personal best
      • Green zone (80-100%), yellow zone (50-79%), & red zone (<50%)
    • Montelukast (Singulair):
      • MOA: selective leukotriene receptor antagonist that inhibits the cysteinyl leukotriene receptor
      • Use: asthma & allergies
        • NOT for COPD
      • Dosing;
        • 6-23 months: 4 mg oral granules
        • 2-5 years: 4 mg chewable tablet or oral granules
        • 6-14 years: 5 mg chewable tablet
        • >15 years: 10 mg tablet
        • Take in evening
      • Granules must be used within 15 minutes of opening
    • Zafirlukast (Accolate):
      • MOA: selectively & competitive leukotriene-receptor antagonist of leukotriene D4 & E4
      • Use: prophylaxis & chronic treatment of asthma in adults & children >5 years old
      • Dose: 20 mg BID
      • Administer 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals
      • Monitor: LFTs
      • Extensively hepatically metabolized via CYP2C9
      • Tablets only
    • Theophylline:
      • 0.80 AT = T
      • SE:
        • 15-25 mcg/ML: GI upset, N/V/D, nervousness, headache, insomnia, agitation, dizziness, muscle cramp, tremor
        • 25-35 mcg/mL: tachycardia, occasional PVC
        • > 35 mcg/mL: ventricular tachycardia, frequent PVC, seizure
      • Theophylline + erythromycinà increased levels of theophylline
      • DI with cimetidine
    • A patient who has had too much albuterol could be given a cardioselective beta blocker

    Bioterrism:
    • Ebola: virus; no cure
    • Anthrax: bacteria (aerobic, gram + bacillus); ciprofloxacin or doxycycline for 60 days

    BPH:
    • Tamulosin (Flomax) & Alfuzosin (Uroxatrac):
      • Greater affinity to α-1 in prostate
      • Less SE
      • Work quickly for instant relief
    • Finasteride (Proscar/Propecia) & Dutasteride (Avodart):
      • Great for a large prostate
      • Take longer to work
      • Proscar MOA: a competitive inhibitor or both tissue & hepatic 5-alpha reductace; this results in the inhibition of the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone & markedly suppresses serum dihydrotestosterone levels
    • Doxazosin (Cardura) & terazosin (Hytrin) also used for BPH
    • Saw palmetto

    Cancer:
    • Chemo drugs that should be refrigerated: cyclophosphamide (after reconstitution)
    • Should be heated prior to
    • Antimetabolites:
      • Pyrimidine analogs: interfere with the synthesis of pyrimidine bases & thus DNA synthesis
        • Can cause mucositis
        • Capecitabine (Xeloda)
        • Fluorouracil; 5-FU (Adrucil)
        • Cytarabine (Cytosar)
        • Gemcitabine (Gemzar)
        • AE: mucositis
      • Folic acid analog: interferes with synthesis of pyrimidine bases & thus DNA synthesis
        • Methotrexate
          • After reconstitution with preservative: may refrigerate
          • AE: myleosuppression, N/V, mucositis
      • Purine analogs: interfere with synthesis of purine bases & thus DNA synthesis
        • Mercaptopurine (Purinethol)
          • DI with allopurinol
        • Thioguanine (Tabloid)
        • Fludarabine (Fludara)
        • Cladribine (Leustatin)
        • Pentostatin (Nipent)
    • Plant alkaloids:
      • Vinca alkaloids: bind to tubulin to prevent formation of microtubules during mitosis
        • Fatal if administered intrathecally
        • Vincristine (Oncovin):
          • Neurotoxic
          • Can cause a decrease in sensation reflexes
        • Vinblastine (Velban)
        • Vinorelbine (Navelbine)
        • AE: neuropathy
      • Podophyllotoxins: bind to tubulin, inhibiting topoisomerase II to cause DNA strand breaks
        • Etoposide; VP-16 (VePesid)
        • Teniposide (Vumon)
        • AE: myelosuppression, neuropathy
      • Taxanes: bind to tubulin, promotes synthesis of nonfunctional microtubules
        • Paclitaxel (Taxol)
          • Use a in-line filter; non-PVC
        • Docetaxel (Taxotere)
        • AE: myelosuppression, alopecia
      • Camptothecins: inhibits topoisomerase I, stabilizing single-strand breaks in DNA
        • Irinotecan (Camptosar)- *Diarrhea*
        • Topotecan (Hycamtin)
        • AE: myelosuppression, alopecia
    • Alkylating Agents: cross-link between DNA bases or between DNA strands to inhibit DNA replication
      • Nitrogen Mustard Derivative:
        • Mechlorethamine (Mustargen)
        • Melphalan (Alkeran)
        • Chlorambucil (Leukeran)
        • Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan)
        • Ifosfamide (Ifex)
        • AE: myelosuppression
        • Mesna is given with cyclophosphamide & ifosfamide to prevent hemorrhagic cystitis
      • Other:
        • Carmustine (BiCNU)
        • Lomustine (CeeNU)
        • Stretozocin (Zanosar)
        • Thiotepa (Thiopex)
        • Busulfan (Myleran)
        • Dacarbazine (DTIC)
    • Antitumor antibiotics:
      • Anthracycline:
        • Cardiotoxic: 450-550 mg/m2 cumulative lifetime dose
        • Doxorubicin (Adriamycin):
          • MOA: appears to directly bind to DNA & inhibit DNA repair (via topoisomerase II inhibition) resulting in the blockade of DNA & RNA synthesis & fragmentation of DNA
          • Turns urine & all other body fluids red
          • SE: myelosupression, cardiotoxicity, extravasation
          • Decrease dose in renal impairment
        • Daunorubicin (Cerubidine)
        • Idarubicin (Idamycin)
        • Mitoxantrone (Novantrone)
        • AE: myelosuppression
      • Other:
        • Mitomycin C (Mutamycin)
        • Bleomycin (Blenoxane)
    • Heavy Metals:
      • Cisplatin (Platinol)
      • Carboplatin (Paraplatin)
      • Oxaliplatin (Eloxatin)
      • AE: myelosuppression, neuropathy
    • Antiandrogens: inhibit uptake & binding of testosterone & dihydrotestosterone in prostatic tissue
      • Flutamide (Eulexin)
      • Bicalutamide (Casodex)
      • Nilutamide (Nilandron)
      • AE: diarrhea
    • Progestins: suppress release of LH & increase estrogen metabolism (decrease available estrogen for estrogen-dependent tumors)
      • Megestrol (Megase): also used to stimulate appetite
      • Medroxyprogesterone (Provera)
    • Estrogens: estramustine is combination of estrogen plus nitrogen mustard; estrogen facilitates uptake, nitrogen mustard released to alkylate cancer cells
      • Estramustine (Emcyt)
    • Antiestrogens: bind to estrogen receptor in breast tissue, preventing binding by estrogen & thereby reducing estrogen-stimulated tumor growth
      • Tamoxifen (Nolvadex)
      • Toremifine (Fareston)
    • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs: turn off negative-feedback release of FSH & LH, reducing testosterone & estrogen production in testes & ovaries
      • Leuprolide (Lupron (breast/prostate); Eligard (prostate); Viadur (prostate))
        • MOA: potent inhibitor of gonadotropin secretion; continuous daily administration results in suppression of ovarian & testicular steroidogenesis due to decreased levels of FSH & LH with subsequent decreases in testosterone & estrogen levels
      • Goserelin (Zoladex)
    • Aromatase inhibitors: blocks enzyme responsible for conversion of circulating androgens to estrogens
      • Anastrazole (Arimidex):
        • For breast cancer
        • Can increase LDL
        • Cannot use with Tamoxifen
        • AE: vasodilation, headache, pain, depression, hot flashes, HTN, osteoporosis
      • Letrozole (Femara)
      • AE: diarrhea
    • Other miscellaneous agents for cancer:
      • Asparaginase (Elspar)
      • Hydroxyurea (Hydrea)
      • Tyrosine kinase inhibitors:
        • Imatinib mesylate (Gleevec)
        • Erlotinib (Tarceva)
        • Gefitinib (Iressa)
      • 26S Proteasome inhibitor:
        • Bortezomib (Velcade)
      • Biological Response Modifiers
        • Immune therapies:
          • Aldesleukin (Proleukin)
          • Interferon-alpha 2b (Intron A)
          • Levamisole (Ergamisol)
      • Monoclonal antibodies:
        • Rituximab (Rituxan)
        • Trastuzumab (Herceptin): works at HER-1 receptor
        • Gemtuzumab (Mylotarg)
        • Alemtuzumab (Campath)
        • Bevacizumab (Avastin)
        • Cetuximab (Erbitux)
        • Denileukin diftitox (Ontak)
        • Ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin)
        • Tositumomab (Bexxar)
    • Colony Stimulating Factors:
      • Filgastrim (Neupogen):
        • MOA: granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF); stimulation of granulocyte production in patients with malignancies
        • Increases production of neutrophils
        • Does not cause agraulocytosis—used to treat it
        • SE: bone pain
        • Store in refrigerator
        • Injection
      • Pegfilgrastim (Neulasta):
        • MOA: stimulates the production, maturation, & activation of neutrophils; activates neutrophils to increase both their migration & cytotoxicity
        • Prolonged duration of effect relative to filgastrim & reduced renal clearance
        • Store in refrigerator
        • SE: bone pain
        • Injection
    • Octreotide (Sandostatin):
      • Somatostatin analog
      • Use: antidarrheal agent for diarrhea secondary to cancer
      • MOA: mimics natural somatostatin by inhibiting serotonin release, & the secretion of gastrin, VIP, insulin, glucagons, secretin, motilin & pancreatic polypeptide
      • Dosage forms available: injection only
    • High emetic potential:
      • Cisplatin, cyclophosphamide, cytarabine, dacarbazine, ifosfamide, melphalan, mitomycin, mechlorethamine
    • Prevention of Acute Chemotherapy-Induced N/V:
      • 5-HT3 receptor antagonist:
        • Dolasetron (Anzemet)
        • Granisetron (Kytril)
        • Ondansetron (Zofran)
        • Palonosetron (Aloxi)
      • Phenothiazines:
        • Prochlorperazine (Compazine)
        • Chlorpromazine (Thorazine)
        • Promethazine (Phenergan)
      • Butyrophenones:
        • Droperidol (Inapsine)
        • Haloperidol (Haldol)
      • Corticosteroids:
        • Dexamethasone (Decadron)
      • Cannabinoids:
        • Dronabinol (Marinol)
      • Benzodiazepines:
        • Lorazepam (Ativan)
      • Benzamides:
        • Metoclopramide (Reglan)
      • Neurokinin-1 Antagonist:
        • Aprepitant (Emend):
          • Substance P/neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist
          • Uses: prevention of acute & delayed N/V associated with highly-emetogenic chemotherapy in combination with a corticosteroid (i.e. dexamethasone) & 5-HT3 (ondansetron) receptor antagonist
          • Avoid with grapefruit juice (CYP3A4)
          • MOA: prevents acute & delayed vomiting by selectively inhibiting the substance P/neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor
          • Dose: oral: 125 mg on day 1, followed by 80 mg on days 2 & 3
            • 1st dose should be given 1 hour prior to chemotherapy
    Cardiology:
    • ACEI:
      • Benazepril (Lotensin)
      • Captopril (Capoten):
        • Used to decrease the progression of CHF
        • SE: rash, hyperkalemia, angioedema, cough
        • Strengths:
          • Tablets: 12.5, 25, 50, & 100 mg
        • Dosed BID-TID
      • Enalapril (Vasotec):
        • Enalaprilat (Vasotec): only ACEI available as IV
          • 1.25 mg/dose given over 5 minutes Q6 hours
        • 40 mg/day max dose
      • Fosinopril (Monopril)
      • Lisinopril (Prinvil, Zestril)
      • Moexipril (Univasc)
      • Perindopril (Aceon)
      • Quinapril (Accupril)
      • Ramipril (Altace)
      • Trandolapril (Mavik)
      • Proven to decrease mortality in CHF
      • Ineffective as monotherapy in African Americans
      • MOA: inhibit the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II (a potent vasoconstrictor)
      • SE: increased SCr, cough, angioedema, sexual dysfunction, hyperkalemia, rash
      • CI: bilateral renal artery stenosis; pregnancy
      • DI: aspirin (high doses); rifampin; antacids (more likely with captopril- separate administration by 1-2 hours); NSAIDS; probenecid (captopril); lithium; allopurinol
    • Alpha agonists:
      • MOA: causes decreased sympathetic outflow to the cardiovascular system by agonistic activity on central α-2 receptors
      • Clonidine (Catapres)
        • More withdrawal
        • Unlabeled use: heroin or nicotine withdrawal
      • Guanabenz (Wytensin)
      • Guanfacine (Tenex)
        • Less withdrawal
      • Methyldopa (Aldomet)
      • SE: sedation, dry mouth, bradycardia, withdrawal HTN, orthostatic hypotension, depression, impotence, sleep disturbances
    • Alpha blockers:
      • MOA: blocks peripheral α-1 postsynaptic receptors, which causes vasodilation of both arteries & veins (indirect vasodilators)
      • Causes less reflex tachycardia than direct vasodilators (hydralazine/minoxidil)
      • Dosazosin (Cardura)
      • Prazosin (Minipress)
      • Terazosin (Hytrin)
      • Counseling: take 1st dose at bedtime, may cause dizziness
      • SE: weight gain, peripheral edema, dry mouth, urinary urgency, constipation, priapism, postural hypotension
        • No effects on glucose or cholesterol
    • Anti-arrhythmic Drugs:
      • Arrhythmias:
        • A. Fib or flutter: DOC- digitalis glycoside; alternative- verapamil or propranolol
        • Supraventricular tachycardia: DOC- verapamil or adenosine; alternative- diltiazam or procainamide
        • Ventricular premature complexes: DOC- beta blocker; alternative- beta blocker
        • Ventricular tachycardia: DOC- beta blocker; alternative- amiodarone
        • Ventricular fibrillation: DOC- amiodarone; alternative- beta blocker
        • Digoxin-induced tachyarrhythmia: DOC- lidocaine; alternative- phenytoin
        • Torsades de pointes: DOC- magnesium; alternative- beta blocker
        • Class IA: inhibit fast Na channels
          • Quinidine
            • SE: Cinchonism
          • Procainamide (Pronestyl)
            • SE: lupus-like syndrome
          • Disopyramide (Norpace)
        • Class IB: inhibit fast Na channels
          • Lidocaine (Xylocaine):
          • Phenytoin (Dilantin)
            • SE: nystagmus
          • Tocainide (Tonocard)
          • Mexiletine (Mexitil)
        • Class IC: inhibit fast Na channels
          • Moricizine (Ethmozine)
          • Flecainide (Tambocor)
          • Propafenone (Rhythmol)
        • Class II: beta-adrenergic agents
          • Propranolol (Inderal)
          • Esmolol (Brevibloc)
          • Acebutolol (Sectral)
        • Class III: primarily block K channels
          • Bretylium (Bretylol)
          • Amiodarone (Cordarone®):
            • SE:
              • IV: phlebitis
              • General: corneal microdeposits, photophobia, ↑LFTs, photosensitivity, blue-gray skin discoloration, pulmonary fibrosis (reduced at low doses- 300 mg/d; increases as dose increases), hyper- or hypothyroidism, polyneuropathy
            • Watch for iodine allergy
            • Avoid grapefruit juice
            • Prior to use: check thyroid levels, eye exam
          • Ibutilide (Corvert)
          • Sotalol (Betapace)
          • Dofetilide (Tikosyn)
            • SE: torsades de pointes
        • Class IV: calcium channel antagonists
          • Verapamil (Isoptin, Calan)
    • Anticoagulation:
      • Direct thrombin inhibitors:
        • Argatroban:
          • A synthetic molecule that reversibly binds to thrombin
          • Eliminated by the liver
          • Use if renal impairment
        • Lepirudin (Refludan):
          • Recombinant DNA-derived polypeptide nearly identical to hirudin
          • Produces an anticoagulant effect by binding directly to thrombin & does not require AT to produce it effect
          • Does not bind to other proteins as heparin does
          • Eliminated by the kidneys
          • Use if liver impairment
      • Enoxaparin (Lovenox):
        • Low molecular weight heparin
        • MOA: inhibits factor Xa greater than IIa
        • Dosing:
          • DVT prophylaxis: 40 mg QD or 30 mg BID
          • DVT treatment: 1 mg/Kg/dose Q12 hours or 1.5 mg/Kg/dose QD
        • Monitor: anti-Xa, platelets
      • Heparin:
        • MOA: potentiates the action of antithrombin III & prevents the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin
        • Dosing:
          • DVT prophylaxis: 5000 units SQ Q8-12 hours
          • IV infusion: 10-30 units/Kg/hr
          • Line flushing: 10 units/mL for infants (<10 Kg); 100 units/mL for older infants, children & adults
        • Monitor: PTT (1.5-2X the upper limit of control; 50-70 sec), platelets
      • Warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven)
        • MOA: inhibits reduction of vitamin K to its active form; leads to depletion of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors II, Vii, IX, X & protein C & S
        • Requires 4-5 days before full anticoagulation effect is achieved
        • Recommended starting dose: 5 mg po QD
        • Strengths/Dosage forms:
          • Injection: 5 mg
          • Tablets: 1, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.5, 10 mg
        • Most indications want an INR in the 2.0-3.0 range
          • Mechanical valves require a higher level of anticoagulation (INR 2.5-3.5)
        • Minor bleeding or elevated INR: hold warfarin dose or decrease dose until INR returns to appropriate range
        • Purple Toe Syndrome may occur due to cholesterol microembolization
      • Acetaminophen is usually a good antipyretic & analgesic choice for patients taking oral anticoagulants
      • Risk factors for DVTs: >40 years old; prolonged immobility; major surgery involving the abdomen, pelvis, & lower extremities; trauma, especially fractures of the hips, pelvis, & lower extremities; malignancy; pregnancy; previous venous thromboembolism; CHF or cardiomyopathy; stroke. Acute MI; indwelling central venous catheter; hypercoagulability; estrogen therapy; varicose veins; obesity; IBD; nephrotic syndrome; myeloproliferative disease; smoking
    • Antiplatelet Drugs:
      • Thienopyridines:
        • MOA: block adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-mediated activation of platelets by selectively & irreversibly blocking ADP activation of the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa complex
        • Clopidogrel (Plavix):
          • Use: reduce atherosclerotic events (MI, stroke, vascular deaths)
          • MOA: irreversibly blocks the ADP receptors, which prevents fibrinogen binding at that site & thereby reducing the possibility of platelet adhesion & aggregation
          • AE: chest pain, headache, dizziness, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, arthralgia, back pain, upper respiratory infections
        • Ticlopidine (Ticlid):
          • Maintenance dose: 250 mg BID
          • DC if the ANC drops to <1200 or platelet count drops to <80,000
          • AE: rash, nausea, dyspepsia, diarrhea, neutropenia, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
          • Dosage form: 250 mg tablet
        • CI: active bleed, severe liver disease, ticlopidine: neutropenia, thrombocytopenia
      • Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors:
        • Abciximab (Reopro)
          • No renal dosing adjustment required
        • Eptifibatide (Integrillin)
        • Tirofiban (Aggrastat)
          • Storage: room temperature, protect from light
    • ARBs:
      • Candesartan (Atacand)
      • Eprosartan (Tevetan)
      • Irbesartan (Avapro)
      • Losartan (Cozaar)
      • Olmesartan (Benicar)
      • Telmisartan (Micardis)
      • Valsartan (Diovan)
    • Beta Blockers:
      • Nonselective:
        • Nadolol (Corgard)
        • Penbutolol (Levatol)
          • Has ISA
        • Pindolol (Visken)
          • Has ISA
        • Propranolol (Inderal):
          • Nonselective beta blocker
          • Can increase cholesterol
          • Strengths available:
            • ER capsule (InnoPran XL): 80, 120 mg
            • SR capsule (Inderal LA): 60, 80, 120, 160 mg
            • Injection (Inderal): 1 mg/mL
            • Solution: 4 mg/mL; 8 mg/mL
            • Tablet (Inderal): 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 mg
        • Timolol (Blockadren)
      • Cardioselective:
        • Acebutolol (Sectral)
          • Has intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA)
        • Betaxolol (Kerlone)
        • Bisoprolol (Zebeta)
        • Metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL)
          • Strength/dosage forms:
            • Lopressor:
              • Injection: 1 mg/mL
              • Tablet: 25, 50, or 100 mg
              • ER tablets: 50 & 100 mg
            • Toprol XL:
              • Tablets: 25, 50, 100, 200 mg
      • Mixed:
        • Labetalol (Trandate):
          • Beta blocker (heart rate drop) with alpha-blocking (vasodilation & BP drop) activity
        • Carvedilol (Coreg):
          • MOA: blocks β-1, β-2, & α-1 receptors
          • Has had proven effects on patient survival in large clinical trials for HF
          • Take with food
          • Antioxidant effects
          • Preferred in HF patients who BP is poorly controlled due to its greater hypertensive effect
          • Increases stroke volume
      • MOA: competitively blocks response to beta-adrenergic stimulation:
        • Blocked secretion of renin; decrease cardiac contractility, thereby decreasing CO; decreased central sympathetic output; decreased HR, thereby decreasing CO
      • Mask signs of hypoglycemia
      • Can increase lipids
    • CCBs:
      • MOA: inhibit the influx of Ca ions through slow channels in vascular smooth muscle & cause relaxation of both coronary & peripheral arteries
        • SA & AV nodal depression & decrease in myocardial contractility (nondihydropyridines)
      • Nondihydropyridines:
      • SE: conduction defects, worsening of systolic dysfunction, gingival hyperplasia
        • Diltiazem ( Cardizem , LA & CD, Dilacor XR, Tiaziac)
          • SE: nausea, headache
          • Cardizem: 30, 60, 90, 120 mg tablets
          • Cardizem LA: 120, 180, 240, 300, 360, 420 mg
          • Cardizem CD: 120, 180, 240, 300, 360 mg capsules
        • Verapamil:
          • IR: (Calan, Isoptin)
          • LA: (Calan SR, Isoptin SR)
          • Coer: (Covera HS, Verlan PM)
          • SE: constipation
      • Dihydropyridines:
        • SE: edema of the ankle, flushing, headache, gingival hyperplasia
        • Amlodipine (Norvasc)
        • Felodipine (Plendil)
        • Isradipine (DynaCirc & CR)
        • Nicardipine (Cardene SR)
        • Nifedipine (Procardia XL, Adalat CC)
        • Nisoldipine (Sular)
    • Combination products:
      • Amlodipine & benazepril (Lotrel)
      • Bisoprolol & HCTZ (Ziac)
      • Losartan & HCTZ (Hyzaar)
    • Direct vasodilators:
      • SE: headaches, fluid retention, tachycardia, peripheral neuropathy, postural hypotension
      • Hydralazine (Apresoline)
      • Minoxidil (Loniten)
        • Hirsutism
    • Diuretics:
      • Monitor: urine output, edema, weight
      • Can increase lipids
      • Loops:
        • MOA: reduction of total fluid volume through the inhibition of Na & Cl reabsorption in the ascending loop of Henle, which causes increased excretion of water, Na, Cl, Mg, & Ca
        • Are more effective that thiazides in patients with renal failure (SCr >2 mg/dL or GFR < 30 mL/min)
        • AE: ototoxicity at high doses; photosensitity; may increase blood glucose in diabetics; orthostatic hypotension; hypokalemia; gout
        • DI: aminoglycosides (increase risk of ototoxicity), NSAIDs (blunt diuretic response), Class Ia or III antiarrhythmics (may cause torsades de pointes with diuretic induced hypokalemic); probenecid (blocks loop effects by interfering with excretion into the urine)
        • Bumetanide (Bumex)
        • Furosemide (Lasix)
          • Available dosage forms: injection, solution, tablet
        • Torsemide (Demadex)
      • Thiazides:
        • MOA: direct arteriole dilation; reduction of total fluid volume through the inhibition of Na reabsorption in the distal tubules, which causes increased excretion of Na, water, K, & hydrogen; increase the effectiveness of other antihypertensive agents by preventing re-expansion of plasma volume
        • Significant decrease in efficacy in renal failure (SCr > 2 mg/dL or GFR < 30 mL/min)
        • DI: steroids (cause salt retention & antagonize thiazide action), NSAIDs (blunt thiazide response), Class Ia or III antiarrhythmics (may cause torsades de pointes with diuretic induced hypokalemic); probenecid & lithium(blocks thiazide effects by interfering with excretion into the urine), lithium (thiazides decrease lithium renal clearance & increase risk of lithium toxicity)
        • AE: increased cholesterol & glucose (short term); decreased: K, Na, Mg; increased: uric acid & Ca; photosensitivity; pancreatitis; impotence; sulfonamide-type reactions
        • Bendroflumethiazide (Naturetin)
        • Benzthiazide (Aquatag, Exna)
        • Chlorothiazide (Diuril)
        • Chlorthalidone (Hygroton, Hylidone)
        • Hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDIURIL, Microzide)
        • Hydroglumethiazide (Saluron, Diucardin)
        • Meethyclothiazide
        • Polythiazide (Renese)
        • Trichlormethiazide (Metahydrin, Naqua)
      • Thiazide-like:
        • Less or no hypercholesterolemia compared to other thiazides; decreased microalbuminuria in DM
        • Metolazone (Mykrox, Zaroxolyn)
        • Indapamide (Lozol)
      • Potassium-sparing:
        • MOA: interferes with K/Na exchange in the distal tubule; decreases Ca excretion, increases Mg loss
        • AE: hyperkalemia
        • Amiloride (Midamor)
        • Triamterene (Dyrenium)
          • Avoid with history of kidney stones or hepatic disease
      • Aldosterone Blocker:
        • Eplerenone (Inspra):
          • Selective
          • CI: DM type II; K > 5.5; ClCr < 30 mL/min
          • PO- tablet 25 & 50 mg
          • K sparing
        • Spironolactone (Aldactone)
    • Epinephrine (Adrenalin):
      • MOA: stimulates α-, β-1, & β-2 adrenergic receptors resulting in relaxation of smooth muscle of the bronchial tree, cardiac stimulation, & dilation of skeletal muscle vasculature
      • Sensitive to light & air- protection is recommended
        • Oxidation turns drug pink, then a brown color
        • Solutions should not be used if they are discolored or contain a precipitate
        • Admixture is stable at room temperature for 24 hours
    • Heart failure:
      • Drugs that can worsen or precipitate:
        • Antiarrhythmics: disopyramide, flecainide, propafenone
        • Beta blockers
        • CCB: verapamil & diltiazem
        • Oral antifugals: itraconazole & terbinafine
        • Cardiotoxic drugs: doxorubicin, daunorubicin, cyclophosphamide, alcohol
        • Na & water retention: NSAIDs, glucocorticoids, rosiglitazone, pioglitazone
      • Metoprolol, bisoprolol, & carvedilol (Starting dose: 3.125 mg BID for 2 weeks) have all shown to be effective in HF
      • Digoxin (Lanoxin):
        • Does not improve mortality, but does produce symptomatic benefits
        • MOA: inhibits Na-K-ATPase pump, which results in an increase in intracellular Ca, which causes a + inotropic effect
          • Reduces sympathetic outflow from the CNS
        • AE: arrhythmias, bradycardia, heart block, anorexia, abdominal pain, N/V, visual disturbances, confusion, fatigue
          • Toxicity is more commonly associated with serum concentrations > 2 ng/mL, but may occur at lower levels if patients have hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, & in the elderly
        • Serum levels: 0.5-1.0 ng/mL
        • 60-80% is eliminated renally- dosage requirement for renal insufficiency
      • ACEI & beta blockers improve mortality
      • Aldosterone antagonist reduce the risk of death & hospitalization
      • Diuretics- symptomatic relief
    • Inotropes:
      • Dobutamine (Dobutrex):
        • MOA: stimulates β-1 receptors causing increased contractility & heart rate, with little effect on β-2 or alpha receptors
          • β-1 > β-2 > α
          • Increases CO & vasodilates
        • Use: inotropic support for patients with shock & hypotension
        • Dosage: start at 3 mcg/Kg/min & titrate to 20 mcg/Kg/min
      • Dopamine (Intropin):
        • MOA: depends on the given dose
          • 1-5 mcg/Kg/min: renal dose; increases urine output
            • Stimulates dopamine receptors
          • 5-15 mcg/Kg/min: increases contractility, HR
            • Stimulates β-1 & β-2 receptors
          • >15 mcg/Kg/min: increases BP
            • Stimulates α-1 receptors
        • Extravasation: give phentolamine
      • Milrinone (Primacor):
        • MOA: inhibits phosphodiesterase III, increases cAMP, resulting in positive inotropic & vasodilating effects
        • Use: short-term IV therapy of CHF; calcium antagonist intoxification
        • Dosage: 50 mcg/kg LD over 10 min; followed by 0.375 mg/Kg/min
        • Preferred over amrinone because of decreased risk of thrombocytopenia
    • MONA-B for MI:
      • Morphine, oxygen, NTG, Aspirin, beta blockers
    • Norepinephrine (Levophed):
      • MOA: stimulates β-1 adrenergic receptors & α-adrenergic receptors causing increased contractility & HR as well as vasoconstriction thereby increasing systemic BP & coronary blood flow
        • Alpha effects > beta effects
      • Readily oxidized, protect from light
      • Do not use if brown coloration
      • Admixture stable at room temperature for 24 hours
    • Postganglionic adrenergic neuron blockers:
      • Guanadrel (Hylorel)
      • Guanethidine (Ismelin)
      • Reserpine (Serpasil)
        • Can cause depression
    • Torsades de pointes:
      • Common drugs that can cause it:
        • quinidine, dofetilide (Tikosyn), sotalol (Betapace), thioridazine, ziprasidone (Geodon)
    • Thrombolytics:
      • Use:
        • ST-elevation > 1 mm in 2 or more contiguous leads or left bundle branch block
        • Presentation within 12 hours or less of symptoms onset
        • In patients >75 years old may be useful & appropriate
        • Can be used in STEMI when time to therapy is 12-24 hours if chest pain is ongoing
        • Should NOT be used if the time to therapy is >24 hours, & the pain is resolved
        • CI in a patient with NSTEMI
      • Drugs:
        • Streptokinase (SK, Streptase)
        • Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA, Alteplase)
        • Tenecteplase (TNK, TNKase)
        • AE: hemorrhage (cerebral)
    • Vasodilators:
      • Nitroprusside (Nitropress):
        • Vasodilator
        • Use: hypertensive crises; CHF
        • Watch for cyanide toxicity (especially with hepatic dysfunction)
        • Watch for thiocyanate toxicity (especially with renal dysfunction or prolonged infusions)
        • Highly sensitive to light
          • Normally a brownish color
          • A blue color indicates almost complete degradation & breakdown to cyanide
      • Nesirtide (Natrecor):
        • B-type natriuretic peptide that increases diuresis & is an arterial & venous dilator
      • Nitroglycerin (NitroBid, Nitrostat):
        • Venous dilator but also an arterial dilator at higher doses
          <LI style="MARGIN: 0in 0in 0pt; COLOR: black" class=yiv1922353117MsoNormal>MOA: Nitroglycerin, an organic nitrate, is a vasodilating agent that relieves tension on vascular smooth muscle & dilates peripheral veins & arteries
          • <LI style="MARGIN: 0in 0in 0pt; COLOR: black" class=yiv1922353117MsoNormal>It increases guanosine 3'5' monophosphate (cyclic GMP) in smooth muscle & other tissues by stimulating guanylate cyclase through formation of free radical nitric oxide
          • This activity results in dephosphorylation of the light chain of myosin, which improves the contractile state in smooth muscle , and subsequent vasodilation
        • Dosage forms available:
          • Spray (do not inhale), ER cap, infusion, injection, ointment (Nitro-Bid), buccal tab (Nitrogard), SL tab (NitroQuick, Nitrostat, Nitro-tab), patch (Minitran, Nitrek, Nitro-Dur)
        • Isosorbide mononitrate (Imdur (ER), Ismo, Monoket):
          • Long acting metabolite of the vasodilator isosorbide dinitrate used for the prophylactic treatment of angina
          • Should be given at 8 AM & 3 PM (any combination that doses them within 7-8 hours of each other to allow for the nitrate-free period in the PM)
        • Isosorbide dinitrate (Dilatrate-SR, Isochron, Isordil)

    Compatibility:
    • Drugs that must be mixed with sterile water:
      • Amphotericin B: no electrolytes, mix in D5W, & reconstitute with sterile water

    Conversions:
    • 1 lb = 454 gm
    • 1 in = 2.54 cm
    • 1 grain = 64.8 mg
    • 1 avoirdupois pound = 454 gm
    • 1 fluid ounce = 29.57 mL
    • 1 gallon = 128 fluid ounces
      • Also 3785 mL, 4 quarts, 8 pints
    • 1 pint = 473 mL (round to 480 mL)

    COPD:
    • 1st line therapy: beta-2 agonist or ipatropium

    Counseling Points:
    • Calcitonin (Miacalcin):
      • For injection:
        • Keep vials in refrigerator
        • Stable for 2 weeks at room temperature
        • Give injection in upper arm, thigh or buttock
      • Nasal spray:
        • Store unopened bottle in refrigerator
        • Once pump has been activated, store at room temperature
          • Good for 30 days
        • Must prime prior to first use or if it has been greater than 5 days
      • Adequate vitamin D & calcium intake is essential for osteoporosis
      • May cause increased warmth & flushing (should last only about 1 hour after administration)
        • Take in evening to minimize discomfort
    • Sulfa eye drops: burns
    • Nicotine gum: chew until peppery taste appears, then park

    Cystic Fibrosis:
    • Autosomal recessive disease of exocrine gland function resulting in abnormal mucus production
    • Genetic mutation on the long arm of chromosome 7
      • The protein encoded by this gene, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), is a channel involved in the transport of water & electrolytes
      • Most common genetic mutation involves a 3-base-pair deletion at position ΔF508
    • Antibiotics for Cystic Fibrosis:
      • Cover for Staphylococcus aureus, H. flu, & pseudomonas
        • Double coverage of antibiotics when pseudomonas (most common) is suspected
          • Antipseudomonal PCN: piperacillin (Pipracil), mezlocillin (Mezlin), piperacillin-tazobactam (Zosyn), ticarcillin-clavulanate (Timentin), ticarcillin (Ticar), aztreonam (Azactam), meropenem (Merrem), or imipenem (Primaxin)
          • Or a cephalosporin: ceftazidime (Fortaz, Tazidime, Tazicef)
          • AND an aminoglycoside: tobramycin
        • Vancomycin for MRSA
        • Burkholderia & Stenotrophomonas species are commonly resistant
          • Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim), chloramphenicol (Chloromycetin), ceftazidime, doxycycline, piperacillin
      • Fluoroquinolones are the ONLY oral antibiotics with good coverage against pseudomonas
    • Pulmozyme (dornase alfa):
      • Recombinant human deoxyribonuclease
      • Use: for management of CF patient to reduce the frequency of respiratory infections that require parenteral antibiotics, & to improve pulmonary function
      • MOA: reduces mucous viscosity resulting in airflow improvement
      • Used with a nebulizer (jet nebulizer)
      • Must be stored in the refrigerator & should be protected from light
        • Should not be exposed to room temp for a total of 24 hours
        • Should not be mixed with or diluted with other drugs in the nebulizer

    Devices:
    • Swan Ganz catheter:
      • Inserted into right side of heart into the pulmonary circulation
      • Measures pulmonary capillary wedge pressure
      • Takes accurate measurement of BP
    • You must measure the scrotum to fit a swimmer’s athletic support
    • Crutches:
      • Armpits should be 2 inches away from crutches
    • PICC line:
      • Peripherally inserted central catheter

    Diabetes:
    • Insulin:
      • Rapid-acting:
        • Lispro (Humalog)
        • Aspart (NovoLog)
        • Glulisine (Apidra)
        • Onset: <15 min
        • Peak: 30-90 min
        • Duration: 3-5 hours
      • Short-acting:
        • Regular- human (Humulin R, Novolin, Velosulin BR)
        • Regular- purified (Regular Ilentin II-pork)
        • Onset: 30-60 min
        • Peak: 2-3 hours
        • Duration: 3-6 hours
      • Intermediate-acting:
        • NPH- isophane insulin suspension (NPH Iletin II- pork)
        • Human (Humulin N, Novolin N)
        • Lente- insulin zinc suspension (Lente Iletin II- pork)
        • Human (Humulin L, Novolin L)
        • Onset: 2-4 hours
        • Peak: 6-12 hours
        • Duration: 10-18 hours
      • Long-acting:
        • Ultralente- extended insulin zinc suspension; human (Humulin U, Ultralente)
          • Onset: 6-10 hours
          • Peak: 10-16 hours
          • Duration: 18-20 hours
        • Insulin glargine (Lantus)
          • Onset: 5 hours
          • Peak: none
          • Duration; 20-24 hours
          • Cannot mix with any other insulin
      • Premixed products:
        • 50/50: 50% regular with 50% NPH
          • Rapid acting for pre-meal & intermediate acting to control later hyperglycemia
        • 70/30: 30% regular with 70% NPH
        • 70/30 analogue: 30% aspart with 70% neutral protamine aspart insulin analogue
        • 75/25: 25% lispro with 75% neutral protamine lispro insulin analogue
      • MOA: decreases blood glucose & assists with glucose control by:
        • Increasing glucose uptake & utilization by peripheral tissues (primarily in muscle)
        • Increasing glycogenesis (glucose à glycogen; primarily in liver)
        • Decreasing glycogenolysis (glycogen à glucose)
        • Decreasing gluconeogenesis (amino acids à glucose)
        • Decreasing lipolysis & ketogenesis (fats à ketone bodies)
        • Converting amino acids to increase protein
        • Converting triglycerides & fatty acids to increase adipose tissue
      • Appearance:
        • Clear (solution): aspart, lispro, glulisine, glargine, regular
        • Cloudy (suspension): NPH, lente, ultralente, all premixed insulin products
      • Sites of injection: abdomen > arm > hip > thigh > buttock
        • In order of greater & more rapid absorption to lesser & slower absorption
      • There’s 1000 units in a 10 mL bottle
    • Insulin secretagogues:
      • MOA: stimulates pancreatic β cells to secrete insulin
      • 1st generation sulfonylureas: can cause a disulfiram-like rxn
        • Acetohexamide (Dymelor)
        • Chlorpropamide (Diabinese)
        • Tolazamide (Tolinase)
        • Tolbutamide (Orinase)
      • 2nd generation sulfonylureas
        • Glimepiride (Amaryl)
          • Max dose: 8 mg/day
        • Glipizide (Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL)- use in renal impairment
        • Glyburide (Diabeta, Micronase)- safe in pregnancy
        • Glyburide micronized (Glynase)
      • Regular meal times are necessary- must not skip
      • SE: hypoglycemia & weight gain
    • Alpha-glucosidase Inhibitors:
      • Acarbose (Precose)
      • Miglitol (Glyset)
        • Least likely to cause hypoglycemia even when fasting
      • Should be taken with the first bite of a meal
      • MOA: delays carbohydrate metabolism & absorption (due to competitive & reversible inhibition of intestinal alpha-glucoside hydrolase & pancreatic alpha-amylase)
      • SE: GI intolerance
      • To treat a hypoglycemic attack: treat with oral glucose
        • Sucrose or fructose would not work
    • Biguanide:
      • Metformin (Glucophage, Fortamet, Riomet):
        • MOA: ↓ insulin resistance
          • 1° in liver; 2° in periphery
        • Dosage: start with 500 mg po BID or 875 mg po QD
          • Max: ~2500 mg QD (850 mg TID)
        • When to hold: in patients undergoing diagnostic radiology procedures that use an iodinated contrast media; hold for 48 hours after the radiology drug is administered
          • i.e. angiogram
        • SE: GI, megaloblastic anemia, & lactic acidosis (Scr men <1,5, women <1.4- don’t use)
    • Thiazoladinediones (glitazones or TZDs):
      • Pioglitazone (Actos)
      • Rosiglitazone (Avandia): need AST prior to starting
        • Wait 3 months before deciding on therapeutic failure
      • MOA: ↓ insulin resistance
        • 1° in periphery; 2° in liver
      • SE: edema, anemia, weight gain, exacerbation of CHF, URIs, resumption of ovulation
    • Meglitinides (nonsulfonylurea secretagogues):
      • Repaglinide (Prandin)
        • Max daily dose: 16 mg/day
      • Nateglinide (Starlix)
      • MOA: stimulates pancreatic β cells to secrete insulin
      • SE: hypoglycemia, weight gain, GI
    • Combination drugs:
      • Glyburide + Metformin (Glucovance)
      • Glipizide + Metformin (Metaglip)
      • Rosiglitazone + Metformin (Avandamet)
    • Example of question: Diabeta is most like Prandin
    • Glyset will not cause hypoglycemia
      • Only sulfonylureas & insulin will lower blood sugar in non-diabetics
    • Glucagon (GlucaGen):
      • Use: management of hypoglycemia
        • Unlabeled use: beta blocker & CCB overdose
      • MOA: stimulates adenylate cyclase to produce increased cAMP, which promotes hepatic glycogenolysis & gluconeogenesis, causing a rise in blood glucose levels
      • 1 unit = 1 mg
    • Diabetic nephropathy:
      • Microalbuminuria (30-300 mg albumin/24 hours) used to diagnosis
      • Annual screening for DM type II measures microalbumin-creatinine ratio (normal <30)
    • Diabetic neuropathy:
      • Treat with TCA’s
      • Neurontin, carbazepine
      • ACEI treat the decreased renal function, NOT the neuropathy itself
    • DKA:
      • A potentially fatal complication that occurs in up to 5% of patients with Type I annually
      • Seen less frequently in Type II
      • Precipitating factors: interruption of insulin therapy, sepsis, trauma, MI, pregnancy
      • Clinical features: N/V, vaguely localized abdominal pain; dehydration, respiratory distress, shock & coma can occur
      • Lab evulation: anion gap metabolic acidosis & positive serum ketones; plasma glucose is usually elevated
        • Hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, azotemia, & hyperosmolality
      • Treatment:
        • Supportive measures
        • Fluids
        • Insulin therapy
        • Dextrose (5%)- once plasma glucose decreases to 250 mg/dL & the insulin infusion rate decreased to 0.05 U/Kg/hr
        • Potassium
        • Bicarbonate therapy
        • Phosphate & magnesium

    Drug-Drug Interactions:
    • Sertraline (Zoloft) & diltiazem (Cardizem; Cartia XT; Dilacor XR; Diltia XT; Taztia XT; Tiazac)
    • Hydroxyzine pamoate (Vistaril) & meperidine (Demerol)
      • Both are CNS depressants

    Epilepsy:
    • Pharmacotherapy:
      • Carbamazepine (Tegretol):
        • Na channel blocker
        • An autoinducer
        • Tegretol XL: ghost tablets in stool
        • SE: rash (rarely causing DC), folate deficiency, hepatotoxicity, aplastic anemia
        • Teratogenic
        • Cannot be given for status epilepticus
      • Felbamate (Felbatol):
        • Rarely used
        • MOA: blocks glycine on N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor (NMDA)
        • SE: hepatotoxicity, aplastic anemia
        • 50% renal elimination
      • Gabapentin (Neurontin):
        • MOA: unknown; structurally related to GABA but does not interact with GABA receptors
        • Also used for peripheral neuropathies
        • 100% renal elimination- no DI that effect drug metabolism
        • Al or Mg containing antacids may decrease absorption
      • Lamotrigine (Lamictal):
        • MOA: decrease glutamate & aspartate release, delays repetitive firing of neurons, blocks Na channels
        • SE: life-threatening skin rash
          • Titrate slowly to avoid
      • Levetiracetam (Keppra):
        • MOA: may prevent hypersynchronization of epileptiform burst firing & propagation of seizure activity
        • Adjust in renal dysfunction
      • Oxycarbazepine (Trileptal):
        • MOA: Na channel blocker
        • PKS: active metabolite- 10-monohydroxycarbazepine (MHD)
        • SE: hyponaturemia; blood dysrasias
      • Phenobarbital (Barbital, Luminal, Solfoton):
        • MOA: increases GABA-mediated Cl- influx
        • SE: drowsiness, dizziness, hyperactivity, folate deficiency, hepatic failure, SJS
        • Teratogenic
        • Decreases effectiveness of BC pills
      • Phenytoin (Dilantin):
        • MOA: Na channel blocker
        • Can only prepare in NS @ 50 mg/mL
        • Highly protein bound
        • SE: peripheral neuropathy, hydantoin faces, acne, hirsutism, gingival hyperplasia, osteomalacia, vitamin K- deficient hemorrhagic disease, folate deficiency (megaloblastic anemia), hepatic failure, SJS
          • Dose-related SE: nystagmus, ataxia, drowsiness, cognitive impairment
        • PKS: exhibits capacity-limited or saturable (Michaelis-Menton) PKS
        • Teratogenic
        • DC tube feedings 2 hours before & after a dose of phenytoin
        • Available dosage forms: suspension, chewable tablet, prompt-release capsule, ER capsule, injection
        • Need albumin level to calculate phenytoin level
      • Primidone (Mysoline):
        • MOA: increase GABA-mediated Cl- influx
        • Metabolized to Phenobarbital & phenylethylmalonamide (PEMA)
        • Primidone, Phenobarbital, & PEMA all have anti-epileptic activity
      • Tiagabine (Gabitril):
        • MOA: blocks GABA reuptake in presynaptic neuron
      • Topiramate (Topamax):
        • MOA: blocks Na channels, enhances GABA activity, antagonizes AMPA/kainite activity
          • Also a weak carbonic anhydrase inhibitor
        • Elimination: primarily renal
        • SE: drowsiness, dizziness, kidney stones, oligohidrosis (may not sweat)
        • Sprinkle capsules can be opened & sprinkled onto a small amount of cool, soft food (i.e. applesauce or yogurt)
        • Drink plenty of fluids
        • Dosage forms available: sprinkle capsules & tablets
      • Valproic acid:
        • MOA: blocks T-type Ca currents, blocks Na channels, increases GABA production
        • SE: weight gain, alopecia, thrombocytopenia, increased LFTs, heptotoxicity (fatal), hemorrhagic pancreatitis (fatal), folic acid deficiency
        • Available dosage forms:
          • Sodium valproate (Depacon): injection
          • Divalproex sodium:
            • Depakene: syrup & gel capsule
            • Depakote Sprinkles: capsules
            • Depakote: delayed-release tablets
            • Depakote ER: ER tablet
      • Zonisamide (Zonegran):
        • MOA: Na channel blocker, blocks T-type Ca channels (currents)
          • Weak carbonic anhydrase inhibitor
        • SE: kidney stones, weight loss, oligiohidrosis
        • Sulfa drug
    • Nonpharmacologic therapy:
      • Ketogenic diet: devised in the 1920’s
        • High in fat & low in carbohydrates & protein
        • Leads to acidosis & ketosis
        • Most calories are provided in the form of cream & butter
        • No sugar allowed
        • Fluids are also controlled
    • Status epilepticus: seizure lasting longer than 5 minutes or ≥2 discrete seizures between which there is incomplete recovery of consciousness
      • Treatment:
        • ABC’s: airway, breathing, circulation
        • 1st line: benzodiazepines
          • Lorazepam (Ativan): rapid onset
          • Diazepam (Valium)
        • IV phenytoin (Dilantin)
          • provided patient was not on phenytoin at home
          • Can only mix with NS
          • 15-20 mg/Kg
          • Contains propylene glycol- cardiotoxic therefore do not infuse faster than 50 mg/min
          • Fosphenytoin (Cerebyx):
            • Prodrug of phenytoin
            • Improves water solubility of phenytoin
            • Can be admixed with any IV solution
            • Dosed in PE (phenytoin equivalents): 1 mg of phenytoin = 1.5 mg of fosphenytoin
            • Can be give at a rate of 150 mg/min
        • IV Phenobarbital (20 mg/Kg)or begin a continuous infusion of midazolam
        • Begin a medically-induced coma
          • Must be on a vent

    Equations:
    • BMI: body mass index
      • Men = 66 + (13.7 X W) + (5 X H) – (6.8 X A)
      • Women = 665 + (9.6 X W) + (1.8 X H) – (4.7 X A)
      • Where W= adjusted body weight in Kg; H= height in centimeters; A= age in years
      • 1 in = 2.54 cm
    • CrCl = (140- age) (IBW) X 0.85 (if woman)
    (72) (SCr)
    • IBWman= 50 + 2.3 (inches over 5’)
    • IBWwoman= 45.5 + 2.3 (inches over 5’)
    • ABW = IBW + 0.4 (Actual – ideal)
    • Henderson Hasselbach:
      • pH= pka + log [base]/[acid]
      • log values:
        • log 100 = 2
        • log 10 = 1
        • log 1 = 0
        • log 0.1 = -1
        • log 0.001 = -2
    • Loading dose (LD) = Css X VD
    • Dose = Css X Cl or Css X VD X Cl
    • T1/2 = 0.693 VD/Cl
    Fanconi’s Syndrome:
    • A congenital anemia due to low production of RBC’s
    • Can also be induced by anything that causes failure of the proximal renal tubules
    • Patients develop polyuria (cannot concentrate the urine), osteomalacia, & reduced growth size
    • At one time it was associated with the use of out-dated tetracycline but this is no longer a problem since the product has been reformulated
      • The filler was the actual culprit
    • Tenofovir (Viread) can cause this

    GERD:
    • H2RA:
      • Cimetidine (Tagamet)
      • Famotidine (Pepcid)
      • Nizatidine (Axid)
      • Ranitidine (Zantac)
        • Available dosage forms:
          • 150 & 300 mg capsules
          • 50 mg infusion for IV
          • 25 mg/mL injection
          • 15 mg/mL syrup
          • 75, 150, 300 mg tablet
          • 75 mg effervescent tablet
    • PPIs:
      • MOA: suppresses gastric acid secretion by inhibiting the parietal cell H+/K+ ATP pump
      • Rabeprazole (AcipHex):
        • Strength/dosage form: delayed-release EC 20 mg tablet
      • Esomeprazole (Nexium):
        • Strength/dosage form:
          • Capsule: delayed release 20 & 40 mg
          • Injection, powder for reconstitution: 20 & 40 mg
      • Lansoprazole (Prevacid):
        • Strength/dosage form:
          • Capsule: delayed release 15 & 30 mg
          • Granules, for oral suspension: 15 & 30 mg/packet
          • Injection, powder for reconstitution: 30 mg
          • ODT: 15 & 30 mg
      • Omeprazole (Prilosec):
        • Do not put in OJ- not stable in an acidic environment
        • Cannot sprinkle onto food
        • Strength/dosage form:
          • Capsule: delayed release 10 & 20 mg
          • Oral suspension (Zegerid): 20 & 40 mg
          • Tablet: delayed release 20 mg (OTC)
      • Pantoprazole (Protonix):
        • Strength/dosage form:
          • Injection, powder for reconstitution: 40 mg
          • Tablet: delayed release 20 & 40 mg
      • Take 15-30 minutes before breakfast to maximize efficacy
    • GERD can exacerbate asthma

    Glaucoma:
    • Increased intraocular pressure, which causes pathologic changes in the optic nerve & typical visual field defects
    • Open-angle glaucoma:
      • Primary glaucoma
      • The angle of the anterior chamber remains open in an eye, but filtration of aqueous humor is gradually diminished because of the tissues of the angle
      • 80-90% of cases
    • Angle-closure (narrow angle) glaucoma:
      • Primary glaucoma
      • Shallow anterior chamber & narrow angle; filtration of aqueous humor is compromised as a result of the iris blocking the angle
    • Therapy:
      • β-adrenergic antagonists:
        • MOA: decrease in aqueous humor formation with slight increase in outflow (beta selective)
        • Often DOC for open-angle glaucoma
        • AE: cardiac effects, worsening pulmonary effects, depression, dizziness
        • Nonselective:
          • Timolol (Timoptic)
          • Carteolol (Ocupress)
          • Levobunolol (Betagen)
          • Metipranolol (OptiPranolol)
        • Selective:
          • Betaxolol (Betoptic)
          • Levobexaxolol (Betaxon)
      • Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors:
        • MOA: decrease in aqueous humor formation
        • AE: lethargy, decreased appetite, GI upset, urinary frequency
        • Do not use with sulfa allergy
        • Acetazolamide (Diamox)
          • Tablets, capsules
        • Dorzolamide (Trusopt)
        • Brinzolamide (Azopt)
        • Methazolamide (Neptazane)
          • Tablets
      • Prostaglandin analogs:
        • MOA: increased uveoscleral outflow without effect on aqueous humor formation
        • Also used as 1st line agents or in combination with beta blockers
        • AE: iris pigmentation, eyelid darkening, macular edema
        • Latanoprost (Xalatan)
          • Administer 1 drop at bedtime
          • Refrigerate
          • Can change blue eyes to brown
        • Bimatoprost (Lumigan)
          • Can cause darkening of eyelids & eye lashes
        • Travoprost (Travatan)
          • Frequent ocular hyperemia
        • Unoprostone (Rescula)
      • α-2 adrenergic agonists:
        • MOA: decrease in aqueous humor formation
        • AE: tachycardia, dry mouth, eyelid elevation, CNS effects in the old & young
        • Brimonidine (Alphagan)
          • Wait at least 15 minutes after using before placing soft contacts
      • Other α-adrenergic agonists:
        • MOA: increase in aqueous humor outflow
        • AE: tachycardia, increased BP, allergic responses
        • Dipivefrin (Propine)
          • Prodrug of epinephrine
        • Pilocarpine (Pilocar)
          • Once weekly dose form called Ocuserts
          • Miotic agent
      • Combination:
        • Timolol & dorzolamide (Cosopt)
      • Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose added to decrease burning

    Gout:
    • Treatment of acute attack:
      • Colchicine:
        • MOA: inhibits phagocytosis of urate crystals by leukocytes; anti-inflammatory agent without analgesic activity
          • Decrease leukocyte mobility thereby decreasing inflammation
        • Dosed until resolution of symptoms, severe GI symptoms occur, or max of 8 mg
        • Available PO (0.6 mg) & IV (0.5 mg/mL)
      • Indomethacin
      • Corticosteroids
        • Effective when given intra-articularly, IV, or PO
        • Used when there is failure to colchine and NSAIDS
    • Prophylaxis:
      • Colchicine (low dose: 0.6-1.2 mg/d)
      • Colchicine + probenecid (ColBenemid)
      • Probenecid (Benemid):
        • MOA: uricosuric agent that promotes the excretion of UA by blocking its reuptake at the proximal convoluted tubule
          • Inhibits renal absorption of UA from the urine into the blood
        • Should drink at least 2 L of water/day to decrease the risk of UA stone formation
        • Available as a 500 mg tablet
        • Avoid use with aspirin
      • Sulfinpyrazone (Anturane):
        • MOA: uricosuric agent that promotes the excretion of UA by blocking its reuptake at the proximal convoluted tubule
        • Drink at least 2 L of water/day
        • Do not use with CrCl < 50 mL/min
      • Allopurinol (Zyloprim):
        • MOA: allopurinol & its metabolite oxypurinol, inhibit xanthine oxides formation, which is the rate-limiting step in UA synthesis; this facilitates the clearance of the more water soluble precursors of UA, oxypurines
          • Inhibits xanthine oxides which reduces UA formation from the metabolism of purine bases of DNA & RNA
        • Take with food
        • Watch for rash- SJS can occur
        • DI: azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine, ACEI

    Hemorrhoids:
    • Therapy:
      • Soap suds enema QD
      • Sitz bath QD
      • Fiber therapy
      • Sitting on a doughnut
      • Cleaning anal area with soap & water after each defecation
      • Dibucaine (Nupercainal): OTC local anesthetic for fast temporary relief of pain & itching due to hemorrhoids
      • Pramoxine (Anusol ointment, ProctoFoam NS , Tucks): OTC local anesthetic for fast temporary relief of pain & itching due to hemorrhoids

    Hepatic Encephalopathy:
    • Syndrome of disordered consciousness & altered neuromuscular activity seen in patients with acute or chronic hepatocellular failure or portosystemic shunting
    • Precipitating factors: azotemia; use of tranquilizer, opioid, or sedative-hypnotic medication; GI hemorrhage; hypokalemia & alkalosis; constipation; infection; high-protein diet
    • Monitor: ammonia levels
    • Treatment:
      • Fleet’s enema
      • Protein restriction; special diet (vegetable protein or branched-chain amino acid enriched)
      • Nonabsorbable disaccharides: lactulose (Cephulac, Constulose, Enulose, Generlac, Kristalose), lactitol, & lactose
        • Lactulose syrup 30 mL of 50% solution QID; diminish to BID when 3 or more bowel movements a day occur daily
        • Lactulose dosage forms: powder for oral suspension, oral solution, oral syrup
      • Neomycin
      • Metronidazole

    Herbs:
    • Herbals that interfere with anticoagulation:
      • Ginkgo, Ginseng, Fish Oil, Garlic, Feverfew, & Ginger
      • “All begin with F or G”
    • Chamomile:
      • Uses: dyspepsia, oral mucositis, dermatitis, ADHD
      • Might have anti-inflammatory effects; might bind to GABA receptors
      • DI: benzodiazepines, tamoxifen, CNS depressants, warfarin, estrogens, CYP1A2 & CYP3A4 substrates
      • CROSS-ALLERGENICITY: German chamomile may cause an allergic reaction in individuals sensitive to the Asteraceae/Compositae family; members of this family include ragweed, chrysanthemums, marigolds, daisies, and many other herbs
    • Chasteberry:
      • Uses: PMS, BPH, menstrual irregularities, female infertility, insect repellant
      • DI: antipsychotics, contraceptives, dopamine agonists, estrogens, metoclopramide
    • Cholesterol: garlic
    • Depression:
      • St. John’s Wort, SAM-e (& Official Answer), DHEA, Kava-kava (anxiety, stress)
    • Dong quai:
      • Used for PMS & menopausal symptoms
      • Interaction with warfarin- made up of several coumarin constitutes
        • Increase INR
    • Feverfew:
      • Use: migraines, arthritis, allergies
      • DI: anticoagulants, antiplatelets, CYP (1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 3A4)
    • Garlic:
      • Active compounds: alliin, allicin
      • Uses: hyperlipidemia, HTN, prevention of atherosclerosis
      • MOA: May act as an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor; may vasodilate & relax smooth muscle, release NO; may also reduce oxidation of LDL & inhibit platelet formation
      • Generally safe with the exception of heartburn, N/V, body ordor, bad breath
      • DI: CYP3A4, cyclosporine, saquinavir, OCs, anticoagulants
    • Ginkgo:
      • Uses: memory, Raynaud’s, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, intermittent claudication, PMS, vertigo
      • Can cause seizures at high doses
      • DI: anticoagulants (warfarin), anticonvulsants, Buspar, CYP (1A2, 2C19, 2C9, 2D6, 3A4), ibuprofen, insulin, drugs that lower the seizure threshold (i.e. anesthetics (propofol, others), antiarrhythmics (mexiletine), antibiotics (amphotericin, penicillin, cephalosporins, imipenem), antidepressants (bupropion, others), antihistamines (cyproheptadine, others), immunosuppressants (cyclosporine), narcotics (fentanyl, others), stimulants (methylphenidate), theophylline)
    • Glucosamine:
      • Use: Official Answer, TMJ, glaucoma
      • Glucosamine is an amino sugar, which is a constituent of cartilage proteoglycans. It is derived from marine exoskeletons or produced synthetically
      • DI: APAP, antidiabetic agents, warfarin
    • Hyperglycemia may be caused by:
      • Black tea, coffee, cola nut, green tea, guarana, mate, N-acetyl glucosamine, niacin, oolong tea, shark cartilage
    • Kava Kava:
      • Uses: insomnia, anxiety, stress, benzodiazepine withdrawal
      • May adversely affect the liver- increase LFTs
      • DI: xanax, CNS depressants CYP (1A2, 2C19, 2C9, 2D6, 2E1, 3A4), hepatotoxic drugs, levodopa
    • Licorice:
      • Uses: dyspepsia
      • has antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, laxative, & soothing properties
      • The constituents glycyrrhizin & glycyrrhetinic acid inhibit 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, an enzyme located in the aldosterone receptor cells of the cortical collecting duct
      • Glycyrrhizin may contribute to licorice-associated mineralocorticoid SE, including HTN & hypokalemia, by both binding directly to mineralocorticoid receptors & by decreasing the conversion of active cortisol to inactive cortisone
      • DI: antihypertensives, corticosteroids, CYP3A4, digoxin
    • Milk thistle:
      • Used for liver disorders; dyspepsia
      • Interactions with CYP2C9 (warfarin, elavil, diazepam), CYP3A4 substrates, estrogens
      • Avoid with hormone sensitive cancers
    • Hot flashes & menopausal symptoms: black cohosh
    • Passion Flower:
      • Used for anxiety, GAD, opioid withdrawal
      • Interactions with CNS depressants
    • Podophyllin:
      • Uses: applied locally for wart removal;
      • Can increase LFTs
    • SAM-e:
      • Uses: depression & Official Answer
      • S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) is a naturally occurring molecule that is distributed throughout virtually all body tissues and fluids; concentrations are highest in childhood & decrease with age
      • Plays an essential role in >100 biochemical rxn involving enzymatic transmethylation
      • It contributes to the synthesis, activation &/or metabolism of hormones, neurotransmitters, nucleic acids, proteins, phospholipids, & some drugs
      • DI: antidepressants, dextromethorphan, levodopa, meperidine
    • St. John’s Wort:
      • Uses: depression, anxiety
      • Two constituents that play a significant role are hypericin & hyperforin
      • MOA: believed to act as a serotonergic 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptor antagonist, & down-regulate beta-adrenergic, & serotonergic 5-HT1 & 5-HT2 receptors when used chronically in animals
      • DI: triptans, xanax, elavil, antidepressants, barbiturates, plavix, OCs, cyclosporine, dextromethorphan, CYP (1A2, 2C9, 3A4), warfarin
    • Valerian:
      • Used for anxiety, stress, insomnia
      • A sedative; similar effects to Ambien
      • Avoid with: etoh, benzadiazepines, CNS depressants, CYP3A4 substrates
    • Some herbs that affect platelet aggregation: angelica, clove, danshen, dong quai, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, feverfew, Panax ginseng, horse chestnut, red clover, turmeric

    Hyperkalemia:
    • Sodium polystyrene disulfonate (Kayexalate): cation exchange resin- promotes the exchange of Na for K in GIT
      • Can be administered as a retention enema or orally
    • IV insulin
      • Causes K to shift into the cells & temporarily lowers the plasma K
    • Calcium gluconate
      • Decreases membrane excitability
      • Administer 1st with hyperkalemia & EKG changes
    • Other: IV NaHCO3 (shifts K into cells); β-2 adrenergic agonists (promote the cellular uptake of K); Loop & thiazide diuretics (enhance K excretion if renal function is adequate); dialysis
    • If the patient also has EKG changes the usual treatment (in order) is:
      • IV calcium first
      • Then IV bolus of 10-20 units of regular insulin with 25 gm of glucose (prevents hypoglycemia)
      • 150 mEq of sodium bicarbonate is one liter of D5W forces K into cells
      • Beta-2 agonists (i.e. Albuterol) nebulized or SQ
      • Combination of loop & thiazide (i.e. Lasix + Diuril) if the renal function is adequate
      • Kayexalate (slow to work)
      • Hemodialysis is best overall, if the time is available & K is severe
      • Peritoneal dialysis is less effective

    Hyperlipidemia:
    • Bile Acid Sequestrants:
      • Effects on cholesterol:
        • TC: ↓
        • TG: ↑ or <-->
        • LDL: ↓
        • HDL: ↑
      • Cholestyramine Resin (Questran, Prevalite):
        • MOA: forms a nonabsorable complex with bile acids in the intestine, releasing chloride ions in the process; inhibits enterohepatic reuptake of intestinal bile salts & thereby increases the fecal loss of bile salt-bound low density lipoprotein cholesterol
      • Colesevelam (WelChol)
        • Strength/dosage forms: 625 mg tablet
      • Colestipol (Colestid)
      • Not absorbed; safest for pregnant women
    • Fibrates:
      • Effects on cholesterol:
        • TC: ↓
        • TG: ↓
        • LDL: ↑ or <-->
        • HDL: ↑
      • MOA: increase catabolism (breakdown) of triglycerides
      • Can cause pancreatitis & liver problems
      • Fenofibrate (Tricor)
        • Changed from 160 mg (with meals) to 145 mg
          • Made it nanocrystals for better bioavailability
      • Gemfibrozil (Lopid)
        • Take 30 minutes before breakfast & dinner
      • Clofibrate (Atromid-S)
    • Statins:
      • Effects on cholesterol:
        • TC: ↓
        • TG: ↓
        • LDL: ↓
        • HDL: ↑
      • MOA: HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors
      • Atorvastatin (Lipitor)
      • Fluvastatin (Lescol, Lescol XL)
        • Shortest t1/2
      • Lovastatin (Mevacor, Altoprev- with niacin)
        • Strengths/Dosage forms:
          • Tablet: 10, 20, 40 mg
          • Mevacor: 20, 40 mg ER tablets
          • Altoprev: 10, 20, 40, 60 mg tablets
        • No grapefruit
      • Pravastatin (Pravachol)
        • Not metabolized in the liver- therefore statin with the least amount of DIs
        • Max daily dose: 80 mg
      • Rosuvastatin (Crestor)
      • Simvastatin (Zocor)
        • No grapefruit
        • Manufacturer recommends limiting simvastatin dose to 20 mg/day when used with amiodarone or verapamil, & 10 mg/day when used with cyclosporine, gemfibrozil, or fibric acid derivatives
      • All except for Lipitor & Crestor should be administered in the evening
      • Pregnancy category: X
      • Monitor: LFTs, CK
    • Cholesterol Absorption Inhibitor:
      • Effects on cholesterol:
        • TC: ↓
        • TG: ↓
        • LDL: ↓
        • HDL: ↑ or <-->
      • Ezetimibe (Zetia):
        • Monitor for muscle pain & increased liver enzymes
    • Niacin (Niacor, Niaspan, Slo-Niacin: OTC):
      • Synonyms: Nicotinic acid; vitamin B3
      • Effects on cholesterol:
        • TC: ↓
        • TG: ↓
        • LDL: ↓
        • HDL: ↑
      • MOA: inhibits the synthesis of VLDL
      • Target dose: 1.5-6 g/day in 3 divided doses with or after meals
      • SE: flushing (pretreat by taking aspirin 30 minutes prior), dizziness, lightheadedness
      • Caution in DM & gout
    • Combination products:
      • Niacin & lovastatin (Advicor)
      • Ezetimibe & simvastatin (Vytorin)
      • Aspirin & pravastatin (Pravigard PAC)- aspirin tablets & pravastatin tablets are separate tablets within the PAC
    • Exercise will help to raise HDL

    Hypermagnesemia:
    • Treatment: 10% calcium gluconate (renal failure) or 0.9% saline with 2 g calcium gluconate per liter (absence of severe renal failure)

    Hyperthyroidism:
    • Thyrotoxicosis
    • Graves disease- most common cause
    • Thyroid storm is a life threatening, sudden exacerbation of all the symptoms of thyrotoxicosis characterized by fever, tachycardia, delirium, & coma
    • Can be caused by drugs such as amiodarone & iodine
    • S/Sx: heat intolerance, weight loss, weakness, palpitation, anxiety, tremor, tachycardia, eyelid sag, warm or moist skin
    • Diagnosis: ↑T4 or T3, ↓ TSH
    • Three modes of treatment:
      • Surgery
      • Radioactive iodine (RAI)
      • Antithyroid (thionamide) drugs:
        • Propylthiouracil (PTU):
          • MOA: inhibit the synthesis of thyroid hormones by preventing the incorporation of iodine into iodotyrosines & by inhibiting the coupling of monoiodotyrosine & diiodotyrosine to form T4 & T3; also inhibits the peripheral conversion of T4 to T3
          • Dosage form: tablets
        • Methimazole (Tapazole):
          • MOA: inhibit the synthesis of thyroid hormones by preventing the incorporation of iodine into iodotyrosines & by inhibiting the coupling of monoiodotyrosine & diiodotyrosine to form T4 & T3
        • SE: fever, headache, paresthesias, rash, arthralgia, urticaria, jaundice, hepatitis, agranulocytosis, leucopenia, bleeding
      • Iodide drugs:
        • Strong iodine solution (Lugol’s Solution):
          • Dosage form: solution- 5% iodine & 10% K iodide; delivers 6.3 mg iodine per drop
        • Saturated solution of potassium iodide (SSKI)
          • Dosage form: solution- 1 g/mL; delivers 38 mg iodine per drop of saturated solution
        • MOA: blocks hormone release, inhibits thyroid hormone synthesis

    Hypokalemia:
    • Diarrhea is associated with liquid KCl

    Hyponatremia:
    • Drugs can cause by 1 of 3 mechanisms:
      • Stimulation of vasopressin release (i.e. nicotine, carbamazepine, Lithium, TCA’s, antipsychotic agents, antineoplastic drugs, narcotics)
      • Potentiation of antidiuretic action of vasopressin (i.e. chlorpropamide, methylxanthines, NSAIDs)
      • Vasopressin analogs (i.e. oxytocin, DDAVP)

    Hypothyroidism:
    • Deficient thyroid hormone production
    • Hashimoto’s disease is the cause of 90% of primary hypothyroidism
      • Autoimmune resulting from cell- & antibody-mediated thyroid injury
    • S/Sx: cold intolerance, fatigue, somnolence, constipation, menorrhagia, myalgias, hoarseness, thyroid gland enlargement or atrophy, bradycardia, edema, dry skin, weight gain
      • Body slows down
    • Thyroxine (T4) is the major hormone secreted by the thyroid, which is converted to the more potent triiodothyronine (T3) in tissues
      • Thyroxine secretion is stimulated by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
      • Diagnosis: ↑TSH, ↓T4
    • Drug therapy:
      • Levothyroxine sodium, T4 (Synthroid, Levothroid, Levoxyl, Unithroid, Thyro-Tabs):
        • Usually DOC
        • Typical dose is 100-125 mcg po QD; reduce dose to 50 mcg for elderly & 25 mcg in patients with CAD to reduce risk of precipitating angina
        • Dose changes are made within a 6-8 week interval
      • Desiccated thyroid USP (Armour Thyroid, Nature-Throid, Westhroid)
      • Liothyronine, T3 (Cytomel, Triostat)
      • Liotrix, T4 & T3 in a 4:1 ratio (Thyrolar)
      • Take 30 minutes before breakfast
      • Don’t take antacids, calcium, or iron supplements within 4 hours of levothyroxine
      • SE: tachycardia, arrhythmia, angina, MI, tremor, headache, nervousness, insomnia, diarrhea, vomiting, weight loss, excessive sweating, hair loss
        • Body speeds up

    ID:
    • Aminoglycosides:
      • MOA: bactericidal; interferes with bacterial protein synthesis by binding to 30S & 50S ribosomal subunits resulting in a defective bacterial cell membrane
      • For serious aerobic gram + infections
      • Poorly absorbed for GIT
      • Renally eliminated by glomerular filtration
      • Watch for oto- & nephrotoxicity
      • Target serum concentrations:
        • Amikacin peak: 15-30 mcg/mL
        • Amikacin trough: <5 mcg/mL
        • Gentamicin & tobramycin peak: 4-10 mcg/mL
        • Gentamicin & tobramycin trough: <2 mcg/mL
      • Amikacin (Amikin)
        • Least susceptible to resistance
        • Rule of nines (see gentamicin)
      • Gentamicin (Garamycin):
        • Rule of eights to determine dosing interval
          • SCr X 8
          • i.e. 2 X 8 = 16- - dose Q16 hours
      • Netilmicin (Netromycin)
      • Tobramycin:
        • Should be given after dialysis and be a routine loading dose
    • ANC: absolute neutrophil count
      • Neutrophils = bands + segs
        • i.e. 5 + 65 = 70
        • This means that 70% of the WBCs are neutrophils
        • If WBC= 14000 cells per cubic millimeter X 0.70 = 9800 neutrophil cells
        • Neutrophils are elevated with bacterial infections
        • Lymphocytes are elevated with viral infections
        • Not much elevation with fungal infections
      • Granulocytes= bands + segs + basophils + eosinophils
    • Anti-fungal agents:
      • Amphotericin B:
        • Amphotericin B-conventional (Amphocin; Fungizone)
          • Premedicate 30-60 minutes prior with NSAID or APAP with or without diphenhydramine
            • Or hydrocortisone
          • Reconstitute ONLY with sterile water without preservatives, not bacteriostatic water
          • Can add D5W
        • Amphotericin B- lipid complex (Abelcet)
          • May also need to premedicate
        • Amphotericin B-liposomal (AmBisome)
          • May also need to premedicate
        • Amphotericin B Cholesteryl Sulfate Complex (Amphotec)
        • May also need to premedicate
      • Itraconazole (Sporanox):
        • MOA: interferes with cytochrome P450 activity, decreasing ergosterol synthesis (principle sterol in fungal cell membrane) & inhibiting cell membrane function
        • CI: CHF
        • Dosing:
          • <LI style="MARGIN: 0in 0in 0pt; COLOR: black" class=yiv1922353117MsoNormal>Onychomycosis, Fingernail: ORAL, 200 mg BID X1 wk, off drug for 3 wk, repeat 200 mg BID X 1 wk
          • Onychomycosis, Toenail: ORAL, 200 mg QD X 12 wk
          • Aspergillosis, Blastomycosis, Histoplasmosis: ORAL, 200 mg QD, MAX 200 mg BID
        • Dosage forms available: 100 mg capsule; injection; oral solution
    • Anti-influenza drugs:
      • Amantadine (Symmetrel)
        • Blocks influenza A; no activity against influenza B
        • Effective when initiated within 48 hours of initial symptoms & continued for 7-10 days
        • SE: GI disturbances & CNS dysfunction, including dizziness, nervousness, confusion, slurred speech, blurred vision, & sleep disturbances
        • May lower seizure threshold- avoid with seizure history
      • Rimantadine (Flumadine)
        • Blocks influenza A; no activity against influenza B
        • Effective when initiated within 48 hours of initial symptoms & continued for 7-10 days
        • SE: GI disturbances & CNS dysfunction, including dizziness, nervousness, confusion, slurred speech, blurred vision, & sleep disturbances
          • Fewer SE than with amantadine
      • Zanamivir (Relenza)
        • Blocks influenza A & B neuraminidases
        • Powder for inhalation (rotadisk with Diskhaler)
        • 1-2 day improvement in symptoms in patients who are symptomatic for no longer than 48 hours
        • SE: headache, GI disturbances, dizziness, upper respiratory symptoms
      • Oseltamivir (Tamiflu)
        • Block influenza A & B neuraminidases
        • 1-2 day improvement in symptoms in patients who are symptomatic for no longer than 48 hours
        • Dosing:
          • Prophylaxis: 75 mg po QD X at least 7 days; should begin within 2 days of contact with infected individual
          • Treatment: 75 mg po BID initiated within 2 days of onset of symptoms; duration of treatment is 5 days
        • SE: N/V/D
        • Oral capsules & suspension
    • Anti-viral agents:
      • Acyclovir (Zovirax):
        • Counseling: avoid sexual intercourse when lesions are present; this is not a cure for herpes; can take with food; maintain adequate hydration (2-3 L/day); may cause lightheadedness or dizziness
      • Famciclovir (Famvir):
        • Uses: genital herpes, herpes zoster
        • Biotransformed to the active metabolite: penciclovir
        • Need dose adjustment for renal impairment
        • Tablet only
      • Valacyclovir (Valtrex):
        • Uses: treatment of herpes zoster (shingles), herpes labialis (cold sores) & genital herpes
        • MOA: rapidly & nearly completely converted to acyclovir by intestinal & hepatic metabolism; inhibits DNA synthesis & viral replication by competing with deoxyguanosine triphosphate for viral DNA polymerase & being incorporated into viral DNA
        • Reduce dose with renal dysfunction
    • Aspergillus:
      • Fungus
      • Amphotericin B (Amphotec, Abelcet, AmBisome), itraconazole (Sporanox), voriconazole (VFEND), caspofungin (Cancidas)
        • Spells out CAVI
        • NOT ketoconazole
    • Cephalosporins:
      • 3rd generation:
        • Cefpodoxime (Vantin)
          • Refrigerate
    • Chlamydia:
      • STD
      • S/SX:
        • Males: urethritis, epdidymitis, proctitis, reiter syndrome, testicular pain
        • Females: cervictis, urethral syndrome, endometritis, PID, urethral or cervical discharge, pelvic pain
      • If left untreated can lead to infertility
      • Treatment: doxycycline, azithromycin, erythromycin (pregnant)
        • Tetracyclines & quinolones CI in children & pregnant women
    • Clostridium difficile:
      • Gram +, anaerobic rod
      • Treatment:
        • DOC: metronidazole
        • Vancomycin
    • Enterococcus faecalis: penicillin, ampicillin, vancomycin, linezolid, aminoglycosides, quinupristin & dalfopristin (Synercid)- for vanco resistant enterococcus (VRE)
      • Chloramphenicol, streptomycin, bactrim
      • Gram +
      • Clindamycin or cefazolin (cephalosporins ) will not treat
    • Escherichia coli:
      • DOC: cefazolin (Ancef), cephalixin (Keflex, Biocef), cefotaxime (Claforan), gentamicin (Gentak)
    • Fluoroquinolones:
      • MOA: bactericidal; inhibit bacterial DNA topoisomemrase & disrupt bacterial DNA replication
      • Can cause QT prolongation
      • AE: crystalluria, tendon rupture
      • Avoid PO in children under 18 years old- may cause cartilage growth suppression
      • 2nd generation:
        • Ciprofloxacin (Cipro):
          • MOA: inhibits DNA-gyrase in suspectible organisms; inhibits relaxation of supercoiled DNA & promotes breakage of double-stranded DNA
          • Dosage forms: infusion, injection, microcapsules for oral suspension, ophthalmic ointment (Ciloxan) & solution (Ciloxan), tablet, ER tablet
          • Cipro ear drops:
            • Ciprofloxacin & dexamethasone (Ciprodex):
              • Antibiotic/corticosteroid
              • Treatment of acute otitis media in peds with tympanostomy tubes or acute otitis externa in children & adults
            • Ciprofloxacin & hydrocortisone (Cipro HC):
              • Antibiotic/corticosteroid
              • Treatment of acute otitis externa (swimmer’s ear)
    • Gonorrhea:
      • Neisseria gonorrhoeae
      • Gram –
      • Cefixime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin
    • Inhibit cell wall synthesis:
      • Vancomycin, PCNs, cephalosporins
    • Legionella pneumophilia:
      • DOC: azithromycin, clarithromycin, erythromycin
      • Alternative: Rifampin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin
    • Lincosamides:
      • Treat gram +, gram - & anaerobic infections
      • Lincomycin (Lincocin)
      • Clindamycin (Cleocin)
    • Lyme’s Disease:
      • Lyme borrelliosis
      • Caused by spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi
      • Tick-borne illness
      • Symptoms:
        • Stage 1 (early disease): erythemia migrans- a slowly expanding macular rash > 5 cm in diameter, often with a central clearing & mild constitutional symptoms
        • Stage 2 (early disseminated): occurs within several weeks to months & includes multiple erythema migrans lesions, neurologic symptoms (7th cranial nerve palsy, meningoencephalitis), cardiac symptoms (AV block, myopericarditis), & asymmetric olioarticular arthritis
        • Stage 3 (Late disease): occurs after months to years & includes chronic dermatitis, neurologic disease, & asymmetric monoarticular or oligoarticular arthritis
      • Treatment:
        • Doxycucline 100 mg BID
        • Amoxicillin 500 mg TID
        • Cefuroxime axetil 500 mg BID for 14-21 days
    • Macrolides:
      • Bacteriostatic
      • Clarithromycin (Biaxin):
        • Should not be stored in the refrigerator
      • Erythromycin:
        • Oral products:
          • Erythromycin base (E-Mycin, Ery-Tab, PCE (polymer coated ery), Eryc)
            • Sensitive to acid
            • Coating on most products
            • Administer on an empty stomach
          • Erythromycin stearate (Erythrocin stearate, Wyamycin S)
            • Properties similar to ery base but better absorbed
          • Erythromycin estolate (Ilosone)
            • Most hepatotoxic
            • Better absorbed than ery base
          • Erythromycin ethylsuccinate (Eryped, EES)
            • Best absorbed form from GIT
            • Available in liquid formulation
            • 400 mg of EES = 250 mg erythromycin base
        • Parenteral products:
          • Erythromycin lactobionate
          • Erythromycin gluceptate
        • Topical products:
          • Erythromycin (Staticin, Emgel)- for acne (colorless)
          • Erythromycin (Ilotycin)- ophthalmic use
        • MOA: bacteriostatic macrolide antibiotic; may be bactericidal in high concentrations or when used against highly susceptible organisms. It penetrates the bacterial cell membrane & reversibly binds to the 50 S subunit of bacterial ribosomes
        • Reacts with theophylline by altering hepatic metabolism
          • Also increases levels of carbamazepine, cyclosporine, triazolam, lovastatin, simvastatin, valproate
      • Azithromycin (Zithromax):
        • More gram – activity than erythromycin or clarithromycin
        • Suspension & capsules: take on an empty stomach
        • Tablet: with or without food
        • Not for children < 6 months old
        • Dosage forms available: injection, oral suspension, tablet, Tri-PAK (3, 500 mg tabs), Z-PAK (6, 250 mg tabs)
    • Meningitis:
      • Inflammation of the meninges that is identified by an abnormal number of WBC in the CSF
      • Causative organisms: many gram + & - species
        • Bacterial agents are associated with a large increase in WBCs, increased CSF protein, & decreased CSF glucose
        • Fungal & viral agents exhibit smaller increases in CSF WBCs, smaller increases in CSF protein, & limited decreases in CSF glucose
    • Mycoplasma pneumoniae:
      • Erythromycin, tetracycline, doxycycline, fluoroquinolones, azithromycin, clarithromycin
    • Onychomycosis:
      • Infection of the nail by fungi (dermatophytes, Candida, molds)
      • Treatment:
        • Fluconazole (Diflucan):
          • 300 mg po weekly X 6 months (pulse therapy)
        • Itraconazole (Sporanox):
          • 200 mg po BID X 1 week per month for 2 months for fingernails & 3-4 months for toenails (pulse therapy)
        • Terbinafine (Lamisil):
          • 250 mg po QD X 3 months
    • Other:
      • Daptomycin (Cubicin):
        • Used for resistant gram + infections
        • MOA: binds to bacterial membrane causing rapid depolarization of membrane potential which leads to inhibition of protein, DNA & RNA synthesis, resulting in bacterial cell death
        • Dosing: 4-6 mg/Kg QD
      • Linezolid (Zyvox):
        • Available dosage forms: IV, powder for oral suspension, tablet
        • For resistant gram + skin infections, vancomycin-resistant E. faecium
        • Monitor for myelosuppression, thrombocytopenia, & HTN (especially if used with tyramine-containing foods)
        • Do not combine with SSRIs because of potential for serotonin syndrome
        • Bacteriostatic/bactericidal agent
        • Adjustment with renal dysfunction
      • Metronidazole (Flagyl):
        • Use: treatment of bacterial vaginosis & trichomonias
        • MOA: after diffusing into the organism, interacts with DNA to cause a loss of helical DNA structure & strand breakage resulting in inhibition of protein synthesis & cell death in susceptible organisms
        • Avoid with etoh
      • Mupirocin (Bactroban):
        • Intranasal: eradication of nasal colonization with MRSA in adult patients & healthcare workers
          • BID
        • Topical treatment of impetigo due to Staphylococcus aureaus, beta hemolytic Streptococcus, & S. pyogenes
          • Apply 2-5 times/day for 5-14 days
      • Nystatin:
        • Brand names: Bio-Statin; Mycostatin; Nystat; Nystop; Pedi-Dri
        • Antifungal agent for the treatment of susceptible cutaneous, mucocutaneous, & oral cavity fungal infections caused by the Candida species
        • MOA: binds to sterols in fungal cell membrane, changing the cell wall permeability allowing for leakage of cellular contents
        • Systemic relief in 24-72 hours from candidiasis
        • Oral: poorly absorbed
        • Available dosage forms: cream, lozenge (DSC), ointment, powder for compounding, suspension, tablet, vaginal tablet
        • Mycolog cream contains a corticosteroid (triamcinolone) as well as an antifungal (nystatin)
          • Could be used for a patient with an ileostomy pouch
          • Would also treat the inflammation that can occur from what are basically “tape burns”
      • Quinupristin/dalfopristin (Syncerid):
        • Indicated for vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium & serious bacterial skin infections
        • MOA: inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding to different sites on the 50S bacterial ribosomal subunit thereby inhibiting protein synthesis
        • Strengths/dosage forms:
          • Injection, powder for reconstitution:
            • 500 mg: quinupristin 150 mg & dalfopristin 350 mg
            • 600 mg: quinupristin 180 mg & dalfopristin 420 mg
      • Vancomycin (Vanocin, Vancole):
        • MOA: inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by blocking glycopeptide polymerization through binding tightly to D-alanyl-D-alanine portion of cell wall precursor
        • Alternative to other antimicrobials, including penicillins & cephalosporins for serious gram + infections (resistant strains of strep, MRSA)
        • Watch for ototoxicity
        • Red man’s syndrome: rapid drop in BP accompanied by maculopapular rash in neck or chest area often associated with rapid IV infusion
          • Should be infused slowly >60 mins
        • Draw peak 1 hour after infusion has completed; draw trough just before next dose
        • Therapeutic peak: 25-40 mcg/mL (>80 toxic)
        • Therapeutic trough: 5-12 mcg/mL
    • Otitis media:
      • 1st line drugs: ampicillin, amoxicillin, bacampicillin
      • Augmentin: (> 3 months & < 40 kg) 90 mg/Kg/day divided Q12 hours X 10 days
      • 2nd generation cephalosporin (cefaclor- Ceclor, cefuroxime- Ceftin, cefprozil-Cefzil, loracarbef-Lorabid)
      • Zithromax (treat recurrent OM ), Biaxin, Bactrim
      • Most common causative organisms: Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus), H. flu, moraxella catarrhalis, pseudomonas, klebsiella
      • Rocephin can be used to treat: 50 mg/Kg in a single dose or for relapsing: 50 mg/Kg QD X 3 days
    • P. acne:
      • Clindamycin, erythromycin, & tetracycline are effective
      • Erythromycin & benzoyl peroxide (Benzamycin):
        • Apply BID
        • This product contains benzoyl peroxide which may bleach or stain clothing
        • Available as a topical gel or Benzamycin Pak (supplied with diluent containing alcohol
    • Penicillins:
      • Resistance to PCN is caused by beta lactamase enzyme production & alteration of PCN-binding proteins
    • Pseudomembranous enterocolitis (PE): Clostridium difficile overgrowth
      • Caused by clindamycin & lincomycin
      • Treat PE with fluid & electrolyte replenishment, oral metronidazole (IV if patient cannot take po), &/or vancomycin (oral only)
    • Pseudomonas:
      • Aerobic, gram – bacillus
      • Treatment:
        • Antipseudomonal PCN (mezlocillin, piperacillin, carbenicillin, ticarcillin)
        • Ceftazidime (Fortaz, Tazidime, Tazicef), Cefepime (Maxipime) + aminoglycoside
        • Quinolone + imipenem
    • Sulfonamide derivates:
      • SJS
      • The only sodium sulfa salt suitable for ophthalmic use is sulfacetamide sodium (Sodium Sulamyd, Bleph-10)
      • Metabolized via acetylation
      • Eliminated renally- good for UTIs
      • Can result in crystalluria- drink sufficient amounts of water to prevent (2-3 L/day)
      • Sulfamethoxazole & trimethoprim (Bactrim, Septra):
        • MOA:
          • Sulfamethoxazole interferes with bacterial folic acid synthesis & growth via inhibition of dihydrogolic acid formation form paraaminobenzoic acid (PABA)
          • Trimethoprim inhibits dihydrofolic acid reduction to tetrahydrofolate resulting in sequential inhibition of enzymes of the folic acid pathway
    • Staphylococcus aureus:
      • DOC: dicloxacillin, nafcillin, oxacillin,
      • PCN allergy: erythromycin, clindamycin, TCN, linezolid, synercid, vancomycin
    • Systemic fungal infection:
      • Would NOT use nystatin
      • Fluconazole (Diflucan)
    • TB:
      • Initial therapy involves RIPE:
        • As therapy continues, therapy may go to RIP & then RI
        • May continue for 6-18 months
        • Rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane):
          • Potent enzyme inducer
          • Orange discoloration of all bodily fluids- stains contacts
          • Also used for elimination of meningococci from the nasopharynx in asymptomatic carriers
        • Isoniazid (Nydrazid):
          • AKA: INH
          • MOA: inhibits the bacterial cell wall of susceptible isolates & is therefore active against actively dividing cells only
            • Bacteriocidal or bacteriostatic depending on tissue concentration of the agent
          • May cause vitamin B6 deficiency- give B6 (pyridoxine) with use
          • SE: peripheral neuropathy
        • Pyrazinamide:
          • MOA: Mycobacterium tuberculosis converts pyrazinamide to pyrazinoic acid which possesses antitubercular activity
        • Ethambutol (Myambutol)
      • Monitor TB drugs with:
        • LFTs
        • AST
        • Or other transferases
    • Tetracyclines:
      • Broad spectrum
      • Doxycycline (Atridox, Doryx, Periostat, Vibra-Tabs, Vibramycin):
        • MOA: bacteriostatic effects by blocking the synthesis of bacterial proteins
        • Long-acting (BID) TCN
        • Eliminated via non-renal routes- good choice for renal impairment
        • DI with trivalent cations- Al (compatible with divalent cations)
    • Thrush:
      • Normally found in the mouth
      • It is a fungal infection of the mouth consisting of white spots
    • UTI- pyelonephritis:
      • E. coli
      • Bactrim, fluoroquinolones. Ampicillin + gentamicin
      • UTI & sulfa allergy- treat with a FQ
        • Do not give FQ to children

    Inflammatory Bowel Disease:
    • Ulcerative colitis: an idiopathic chronic inflammatory disease of the colon & rectum
    • Crohn’s disease: can affect any part of the tubular GIT & is characterized by transmural inflammation of the gut wall
    • Treat with:
      • Sulfasalazine (Azulfidine, Sulfazine)
      • Mesalamine (Asacol, Canasa, Pentasa, Rowasa)
      • Olsalazine (Dipentum)
      • Glucocorticords
      • Immunosuppressive agents (6-mercaptopurine, azathioprine, methotrexate, cyclosporine)
      • Antibiotics (metronidazole)
      • Infliximab (Remicade)
    • Sulfasalazine (Azulfidine®):
      • Used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis) & RA
      • Watch for sulfa allergy, salicylate allergy, & urinary discoloration
      • Sulfasalazine à sulfapyridine + mesalamine (5-aminosalicyclic acid; 5-ASA)
        • 5-ASA is more active
        • If patient cannot tolerate sulfasalazine because of a sulfa hypersensitivity, mesalamine (Asacol, Pentasa, Rowasa) may be used
          • Asacol
            • Delayed released, EC coated tablet- do not crush or chew

    Immunosuppressive Therapy:
    • Calcineurin inhibitors:
      • Cyclosporine (Sandimmune, Neoral)
      • Tacrolimus (Prograf)
    • mTOR inhibitors:
      • Sirolimus (Rapamune)
    • Antiproliferative agents:
      • Azathioprine (Imuran)
      • Mycophenolate mofetil (CellCept)
      • Mycophenolate sodium (Myfortic)
      • Leflunomide (Arava)
    • Monoclonal antibodies:
      • Muromonab-CD3 (Orthoclone OKT 3)
      • Basliximab (Simulect)
      • Daclizumab (Zenepax)
    • Polyclonal antibodies:
      • Anti-thymocyte globulin (Atgam): equine
      • Anti-thymocyte globulin (Thymoglobulin): rabbit

    Insomnia, Anxiety, or both:
    • Benzodiazepines:
      • Most undergo oxidation to active metabolites in liver
      • Lorazepam (Ativan), oxazepam (Serax), & temazepam (Restoril) undergo glucuronidation to inactive metabolites
        • Useful in elderly & those with liver disease
      • Can experience seizures & delirium with sudden discontinuation
      • Hypnotic agents:
        • Estazolam (ProSom)
        • Flurazepam (Dalmane)
        • Quazepam (Doral)
        • Temazepam (Restoril)
        • Triazolam (Halcion)
    • Trazodone (Desyrel):
      • Antidepressant that is useful for severe anxiety or insomnia
      • Highly sedating, causing postural hypotension & is associated with priapism
      • Doses:
        • Sedation: 25-50 mg
        • Depression: 150 mg divided into 3 daily doses; max 600 mg/day
    • Zolpidem (Ambien):
      • An imidazopyridine hypnotic agent
      • MOA: has much or all of its actions explained by its effects on benzodiazepine receptors, especially the omega-1 receptor
        • binds the benzodiazepine (BZ) receptor subunit of the GABA-A receptor complex
      • No withdrawal symptoms, rebound insomnia or tolerance
      • Rapid onset good for initiating & maintaining sleep
      • SE: headache, daytime somnolence, GI upset
      • Avoided in patients with obstructive sleep apnea
    • Zaleplon (Sonata)
      • Nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic
      • MOA: interacts with benzodiazepine GABA receptor complex
      • T1/2 is ~1 hour & has no active metabolites
      • SE: drowsiness, dizziness, & impaired coordination
      • Caution in those with compromised respiratory function
    • Eszopiclone (Lunesta):
      • MOA: may interact with GABA-receptor complexes
    • OTC sleep aids:
      • Doxylamine (Unisom)
      • Diphenhydramine (Nytol, Sominex)
      • Diphenhydramine + APAP (Tylenol PM, Unisom Pain Relief)
      • Diphenhydramine + ASA (Bayer PM)

    Lupus:
    • Autoimmune inflammatory condition
    • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
    • Drugs that can contribute: procainamide**, phenytoin, chlorpromazine, hydralazine*, quinidine, methyldopa, & isoniazid
    • Therapy:
      • Arthritis: NSAIDs or glucocorticoids
      • Dermatologic complications: hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil)
      • Thrombocytopenia: glucocorticoid therapy
      • Refractory cases: cyclophosphamide

    Metabolic acidosis:
    • Give sodium acetate- acetate ion converts to bicarbonate
    • Bicitra:
      • Sodium citrate & citric acid
      • Other brand names: Cytra-2 & Oracit
      • AKA: Modified Shohl’s solution
      • Use: treatment of metabolic acidosis; alkalinizing agent in conditions where long-term maintenance of an alkaline urine is desirable
        • Also solution antacid pre-op if patient has eaten just before emergency surgery or delivery of child
      • Dosing: oral- 10-30 mL with water after meals (to avoid laxative effect) & at bedtime
      • SE: N/V/D, hyperkalemia, tetany

    Migraines:
    • Triptans:
      • Selective serotonin receptor agonists that activate 5-HT1B/5-HT1D & to a lesser extent 5-HT1A/5-HT1F
      • Agents:
        • Almotriptan (Axert): 6.25 & 12.5 mg tablets; CYP450 & MAO metabolism
          • NMT 2 doses in 24 hours
        • Sumatriptan (Imitrex): 25, 50, & 100 mg tablets, 5 & 20 mg nasal spray, 12 mg/mL injection; MAO metabolism
          • Can re-dose oral tablets & nasal spray if no response after 2 hours
          • Can re-dose injection if no response after 1 hour
        • Eletriptam (Relpax): 20 & 40 mg tablets; CYP 3A4 metabolism
          • Can re-dose after 2 hours
          • 80 mg/day max
        • Frovatriptan (Frova): 2.5 mg tablet; renal 50%
          • Can re-dose after 2 hours
          • 7.5 mg/day max
        • Rizatriptan (Maxalt): 5 & 10 mg tablet/wafer; MAO metabolism
          • Can re-dose after 2 hours
          • 30 mg/day max
          • 15 mg max if also taking propranolol
        • Zolmitriptan (Zomig): 2.5 mg tablet/wafer, nasal spray 5 mg, ODT; CYP450 & MAO metabolism
          • Can re-dose after 2 hours
          • NMT 10 mg per 24 hours
        • Naratriptan (Amerge): 1 & 2.5 mg tablets; renal 70% & CYP450
          • Dose may be repeated after 4 hours
          • NMT 5 mg in 24 hours
      • SQ sumatriptan has the fastest onset followed by sumatriptan nasal spray
      • Rizatriptan may have a slightly faster onset of action than the others
      • Migraine recurrence rates may be lower with long half-life triptans such as naratriptan & frovatriptan
      • SE: tingling & paresthesias; sensations of warmth in the head, neck, chest, & limbs; dizziness; flushing; neck pain or stiffness
      • Do not give sumatriptan to patients who have risk factors for CAD
      • CI: in patients with hx of ischemic heart disease, MI, uncontrolled HTN, or other heart disease; pregnancy
      • Should not be taken within 24 hours of other triptans, isometheptene, or ergot derivatives
    • Combination:
      • Midrin:
        • Oral Capsule: (Acetaminophen - Dichloralphenazone - Isometheptene Mucate) 325 MG-100 MG-65 MG
          <LI style="MARGIN: 0in 0in 0pt; COLOR: black" class=yiv1922353117MsoNormal>Isometheptene: is an indirect-acting sympathomimetic agent with vasoconstricting activity
          <LI style="MARGIN: 0in 0in 0pt; COLOR: black" class=yiv1922353117MsoNormal>Dichloralphenazone: a mild sedative & relaxant
        • Acetaminophen: may act predominantly by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis in the CNS &, to a lesser extent, through a peripheral action by blocking pain-impulse generation
          • The peripheral action may also be due to inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis or to inhibition of the synthesis or actions of other substances that sensitize pain receptors to mechanical or chemical stimulation

        <LI style="MARGIN: 0in 0in 0pt; COLOR: black" class=yiv1922353117MsoNormal>Butalbital 50 mg, aspirin 325 mg, & caffeine 40 mg (Fiorinal):
        • Capsules
      • Butalbital, acetaminophen, & caffeine (Anolor 300; Dolgic; Esgic; Fioricet; Medigesic; Repan; Zebutal):
        • Butalbital 50 mg, APAP 325 mg & caffeine 40 mg (Fioricet)
          • Tablet
    • Ergot derivatives:
      • CI: pregnancy, peripheral vascular disease, CAD, sepsis, hepatic or renal impairment
      • Dihydroergotamine (DHE 45, Migranal):
        • Migraines: with or without aura
        • MOA: ergot alkaloid alpha-adrenergic blocker directly stimulates vascular smooth muscle to vasoconstrict peripheral & cerebral vessels; also has effects on serotonin receptors
          • 5-HT1D receptor agonist
        • Max: 6 mg/week
        • Patient takes too much: N/V/D, dizziness, paresthesia, peripheral ischemia, peripheral vasoconstriction
        • Available dosage forms: injection & intranasal spray
          • DHE 45 NS: 1 spray in each nostril; can repeat in 15 minutes; max is 4 sprays/day
            • Discard open ampules after 8 hours
      • Ergotamine tartrate & caffeine (Cafergot):
        • Available dosage forms: tablets & suppositories
        • Max: 6 mg/day or 10 mg/week
      • SE: nausea & vomiting (resulting from stimulation of the CTZ)
      • Ergotism: severe peripheral ischemia
        • Sx: cold, numb, painful extremities, continuous paresthesias, diminished peripheral pulses & claudication may result from the vasoconstrictor effects of the ergot alkaloids
        • Gangrenous extremities, MI, hepatic necrosis, & bowel & brain ischemia are rare, but have been reported
    • Propylactic therapy:
      • DOC:
        • Propranolol (Inderal): use if patient also has HTN
          • Lipid soluble
        • Amitriptyline (Elavil): concomitant depression
        • Valproate (Depakote): concomitant seizures
        • Cyproheptadine (Periactin): useful for migraines in children
        • Feverfew: herbal with some benefits shown
        • Ergonovine maleate: effective for menstrual migraines
        • Methysergide (Sansert):
          • Dose: 2 mg BID up to 8 mg X 6 months
            • Then stop for 1 month
            • If you don’t stop- get SE of retroperitoneal fibrosis: organs in abdominal cavity become fibrotic & can die
            • This can occur as the result of constant vasoconstriction- which provides less blood flow to organs
            • You must stop to allow blood flow to return

    Miscellaneous Drugs:
    • Acetylcysteine (Mucomyst, Acetadote):
      • MOA: exerts mucolytic action through its free sulfhydryl group which opens up the disulfide bonds in the mucoproteins thus lowering mucous viscosity; thought to reverse APAP toxicity by providing substrate for conjugation with the toxic metabolites
    • Adalimumab (Humira):
      • Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) blocking agent
      • MOA: binds to human tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) receptor sites
        • Elevated TNF levels in the synovial fluid are involved in pathologic pain
      • Use: treatment of active RA in patients with inadequate response to one or more DMARDs; psoriasis
      • Dose: 40 mg SQ EOW
      • Before starting therapy: TB test, measure rheumatoid factor, PT
    • Adefovir (Hepsera):
      • Antiretroviral agent; reverse transcriptase inhibitor (nucleoside)
      • MOA: acyclic nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (adenosine analog) which interferes with HBV viral RNA dependent DNA polymerase resulting in inhibition of viral replication
      • Use: treatment of chronic hepatitis B
    • Aspirin & dipyridamole (Aggrenox):
      • Use: reduction in the risk of stroke in patients who have had transient ischemia of the brain or completed ischemic stroke due to thrombosis
      • MOA:
        • Dipryidamole: inhibits the uptake of adenosine into platelets, endothelial cells & erythrocytes
        • Aspirin: inhibits platelet aggregation by irreversible inhibition of platelet cyclooxygenase & thus inhibits the generation of thromboxane A2
      • Dosing: 1 capsule BID
    • Atropine (AtroPen; Atropine-Care; Isopto; Sal-Tropine):
      • AtroPen formulation is available for use primarily by the department of defense
      • MOA: blocks the action of acetylcholine at parasympathetic sites in smooth muscle, secretory glands & the CNS; increases CO, dries secretions, antaonizes histamine & serotonin
    • Bismuth subsalicylate, metronidazole, tetracycline (Helidac):
      • If patient has + urea breath test indicating H. pylori present
    • Chlorhexidine (Periogard):
      • Antibacterial agent for oral rinse
      • Bactericidal
      • Uses: disinfectant; gingivitis; periodonitis; inhibits plaque formation
    • Cromolyn (NasalCrom):
      • Dose: use 1 spray in each nostril 3-4 times per day
    • Cyclosporin (Gengraf, Neoral, Restasis, Sandimmune):
      • Neoral & Sandimmune are NOT therapeutically equivalent
      • Immunosuppressant agent
      • MOA: inhibition of production & release of interleukin II & inhibits interleukin II-induced activation or resting T-lymphocytes
    • Danazol (Danocrine):
      • Use: treatment of endometriosis, fibrocystic breast disease & hereditary angioedema
      • Androgen
      • MOA: suppresses pituitary output of FSH & LH that causes regression & atrophy of normal & ectopic endometrial tissue; decreases rate of growth of abnormal breast tissue
      • CI: markedly impaired hepatic, renal, or cardiac function
    • Desmopressin (DDAVP, Stimate):
      • Vasopressin analog
      • Uses: diabetes insipidus; control bleeding in hemophilia A & van Willebrand disease; primary noctural enuresis
      • Strengths/dosage forms:
        • Injection (IV): 4 mcg/mL
        • Solution, intranasal: 100 mcg/mL
        • Tablets
    • Desoximetasone (Topicort):
      • Intermediate to high potency topical corticosteriod
      • Available as a cream & ointment
    • Dicyclomine (Bentyl);
      • MOA: anticholinergic agent
      • Uses: treatment of functional disturbances of GI motility such as irritable bowel syndrome
      • NOT used for GERD
    • Diphenhydramine (Benadryl):
      • Analgesic, antihistamine, antipruritic, sleep aid, antitussive, antiemetic
      • Class: Ethanolamine
      • Dosing adjustments in renal impairment
      • MOA: Diphenhydramine hydrochloride acts as an antihistamine by competing with histamine for receptor sites on effector cells
      • Precautions: bladder neck obstruction; concurrent MAOI therapy; concurrent use of CNS depressants; decreases mental alertness & psychomotor performance; do not use topical form on eyes or eye lids; elderly are more susceptible to the SE of diphenhydramine; history of bronchial asthma, increased intraocular pressure, hyperthyroidism, cardiovascular disease or HTN; may cause excitation in young children; narrow angle glaucoma; pyloroduodenal obstruction; stenosing peptic ulcer; symptomatic prostatic hypertrophy
    • Diphenoxylate & Atropine (Lomitol; Lonox):
      • Antidiarrheal
      • CI: severe liver disease; jaundice; narrow angle glaucoma; children < 2 years old
      • MOA: diphenoxylate inhibits excessive GI motility & GI propulsion
      • Commercial preparations contain a subtherapeutic amount of atropine to discourage abuse
      • Dosing: 15-20 mg/day of diphenoxylate in 3-4 divided doses
        • Maintenance: 5-15 mg/day in 2-3 divided doses
      • May cause drowsiness
    • Etancercept (Enbrel):
      • Disease modifying agent
      • MOA: binds to TNF & blocks its interaction with cell surface receptors
        • TNF blocker
      • Use: moderate-severe RA; chronic plaque psoriases
      • Dose: 25 mg injection SQ twice weekly or 50 mg injection SQ once weekly
      • Initial storage of drug: in refrigerator (not frozen)
      • Stability of vials after reconstitution: 14 days in refrigerator
      • Allow prefilled syringes 15-30 minutes at room temperature prior to injection
      • Some foaming is normal
      • No DI with methotrexate
      • Stop using when patient has a serious infection
    • Guaifensin:
      • MOA: expectorant which acts by irritating the gastric mucosa & stimulating respiratory tract secretions, thereby increasing respiratory fluid volumes & decreasing mucus viscosity
    • Hyaluronate (Hyalgan, Biolon, Healon, Hylaform, Orthovisc, Provisc, Restylane, Supartz, Synvisc, Vitax):
      • MOA: sodium hyaluronate is a polysaccharide which is distributed widely in the extracellular matrix of connective tissue in man. It forms a viscoelastic solution in water (at physiological pH & ionic strength) which makes it suitable for aqueous & vitreous humor in ophthalmic surgery & functions as a tissue &/or joint lubricant
      • Use:
        • intra-articular injection (Synvisc)- treatment of pain in Official Answer in knee in patients who have failed nonpharmacologic treatment & simple analgesics
          • No weight bearing exercise for 48 hours
        • Intradermal- correction of moderate to severe facial wrinkles
        • Ophthalmic- surgical aid in cataract extraction, intraocular implantation, corneal transplant, glaucoma filtration, & retinal attachment surgery
        • Topical- management of skin ulcers & wounds
    • Hydroxyzine (Atarax, Vistaril):
      • MOA: competes with histamine for H1 receptor sites on effector cells in the GIT, blood vessels, & respiratory tract; possesses skeletal muscle relaxing, bronchodilator, antihistamine, antiemetic, & analgesic properties
      • Use: treatment of anxiety; preoperative sedative; antipruritic; antiemetic
      • Causes sedation
      • Hydroxyzine pamoate (Vistaril)
      • Hydroxyzine HCl (Atarax)
      • Not to be confused with Hydralazine
    • Interferon beta 1b (Betseron):
      • Use: treatment of MS
      • Can cause hepatotoxicity- monitor LFTs
    • Isotretinoin (Accutane, Amnesteem, Clarais, Sotret):
      • Retinoic acid derivative
      • MOA: reduces sebaceous gland size & reduces sebum production; regulates cell proliferation & differentiation
      • Use: treatment of sever recalcitrant nodular acne unresponsive to conventional therapy
      • RiskMAP, S.M.A.R.T., S.P.R.I.T., I.M.P.A.R.T. programs
        • Cannot be dispensed unless the rx is affixed with a yellow, self-adhesive qualification sticker filled out by the prescriber
        • Telephone, fax, or computer-generated rxs are no longer valid
        • Rx cannot be written for more than a 1-month supply, must be dispensed with a patient education guide
        • Females must have their rxs filled within 7 days of the qualification date- considered expired if > 7days
      • Pregnancy risk factor: X
        • Females must have 2 methods of contraception; 1 month prior to starting therapy & 1 month after discontinuation of therapy
        • Therapy is begun after 2 negative pregnancy tests
      • SE: increased triglycerides, elevated blood glucose, photosensivitivity, seizure, cataracts
      • Avoid additional vitamin A supplements
      • Dose: 0.5-2 mg/Kg/day in 2 divided doses
      • Take with food; limit exercise while on therapy; capsules can be swallowed, or chewed & swallowed; capsule may be opened with a large needle & contents placed on applesauce or ice cream
      • Excerbation of acne may occur during the 1st weeks of therapy
      • Accutane, Amnesteem, & Sotret contains soybean oil (Claravis does not)
    • Lansoprazole (30 mg), amoxicillin (1 g), clarithromycin (500 mg) (Prevpac):
      • For H. pylori
      • Taken together BID for 10-14 days
    • Leflunomide (Arava):
      • Disease modifying agent
      • MOA: inhibits pyrimidine synthesis, resulting in antiproliferative & anti-inflammatory effects
      • Use: treatment of active RA; indicated to reduce signs & symptoms, & to retard structural damage & improve physical function
    • Luride: source of fluoride to prevent dental caries
      • Supplied as sodium fluoride in chewable tablets that provide 0.25 mg, 0.5 mg, & 1 mg of fluoride ion per tab
      • Prolonged ingestion with excessive doses may result in dental fluorosis (staining or hypoplasia of the enamel of the teeth) & osseous changes
    • Malathion (Ovide):
      • Class: organophosphate; pediculicide
      • Uses: pediculosis capitis; lice
      • MOA: acts via cholinesterase inhibition. It exerts both lousicidal & ovicidal actions in vitro.
      • Safety not established in children under 6 years old
      • Lotion
    • Mannitol (Osmitrol, Resectisol):
      • Osmotic diuretic
      • MOA: increases osmotic pressure of glomerular filtrate, which inhibits tubular reabsorption of water & electrolytes & increases urinary output
    • Mebendazole (Vermox):
      • Anthelmintic agent
      • MOA: selectively & irreversibly blocks glucose uptake & other nutrients in susceptible adult intestine-dwelling helminthes
      • Dosing:
        • Pinworms: 100 mg po ASD; may need to repeat after 2 weeks; treatment should include family members in close contact with patient
        • Whipworms, roundworms, hookworms: 1 tablet BID, morning & evening on 3 consecutive days; if patient is not cured within 3-4 weeks, a 2nd course of treatment may be administered
        • Capillariasis: 200 mg BID for 20 days
      • Strengths/dosage forms:
        • Tablet, chewable: 100 mg
    • Methotrexate (Rheumatrex; Trexall):
      • MOA: inhibits dihydrofolate reductase causing interference with DNA synthesis, repair, & cellular replication
      • Juvenile RA: oral, IM: 10 mg/m2 once weekly
      • Does cause alopecia
      • Causes myelosuppression & thrombocytopenia
        • NOT thrombocytosis (increased PLT)
      • BBW for hepatotoxicity
      • Can cause megalobastic anemia
    • Misoprostol (Cytotec):
      • MOA: synthetic prostaglandin E1 analog that replaces the protective prostaglandins consumed with prostaglandin-inhibiting therapies (i.e. NSAIDs); has been shown to induce uterine contractions
      • Dosing:
        • Prevention of NSAID-induced ulcers: 200 mcg po QID with food (to decrease diarrhea)
        • Labor induction or cervical ripening: intravaginal- 25 mcg (1/4 of a 100 mcg tablet)
          • Do not use in patients with previous cesarean delivery or prior major uterine surgery
        • Fat absorption in CF (unlabeled use): 100 mcg QID (ages 8-16)
      • Tablets only (no IV)
    • Nimodipine (Nimotop):
      • MOA: calcium channel blocker
      • Use: spasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage from ruptured intracranial aneurysms
      • Has a greater effect on cerebral arteries- may be due to the drug’s increased lipophilicity
      • Dosing: 60 mg po Q4h x 21 days; start 96 hours after subarachnoid hemorrhage
      • If the capsules cannot be swallowed, the liquid may be removed by making a hole in each end of the capsule with an 18-guage needle & extracting the contents via syringe
    • Oxybutynin (Ditropan):
      • Urinary antispasmodic agent
      • MOA: Non-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist with a higher affinity for M1 & M3 receptors
        • Increases bladder capacity, decreases uninhibited contractions, & delays desire to void
      • Dosage forms available: syrup, tablet (IR, XR), patch (Oxytrol)
    • Palivilizumab (Synagis):
      • Use: monoclonal antibody used for prevention of serious lower respiratory tract disease caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in infants & children < 2 years
      • MOA: exhibits neutralizing & fusion-inhibitory activity against RSV
        • Ribavirin (Copegus, Rebetol, Ribasphere, Virazole) also used to treat RSV
          • Available as: capsule; powder for aerosol; oral solution; tablet
    • Pancuronium:
      • Nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent
      • MOA: blocks neural transmission at the myoneural junction by binding with cholinergic receptor sites
      • Onset: 2-4 minutes
      • Duration after single dose: 40-60 minutes
      • Use: adjunct to general anesthesia to facilitate endotracheal intubation & to relax skeletal muscles during surgery; does not relieve pain or produce sedation
      • DOC for neuromuscular blockade EXCEPT in patients with renal failure, hepatic failure, or cardiovascular instability
      • AE: increased pulse rate, elevated BP & CO, edema, flushing, rash, bronchospasm, hypersensitivity rxn
    • Peginterferon Alfa-2a (Pegasys):
      • Use: hepatitis C
      • Refrigerate; protect from light

      <LI style="MARGIN: 0in 0in 0pt; COLOR: black" class=yiv1922353117MsoNormal>Permethrin(Acticin, Elimite, Nix Creme Rinse, Pronto, Rid, A200 Lice Control)
      • OTC available with same ingredient: Nix
    • PhosLo:
      • Calcium acetate
      • Use:
        • Oral: control of hyperphosphatemia in end-stage renal failure; does not promote aluminum absorption
        • IV: calcium supplementation in parenteral nutrition therapy
      • MOA: combines with dietary phosphate to form insoluble calcium phosphate which is excreted in the feces
    • Physostigmine (Antilirium):
    • Prednisone (Deltasone, Sterapred):
      • MOA: an adrenocortical steroid with salt-retaining properties; it is a synthetic glucocorticoid analog, which is mainly used for anti-inflammatory effects in different disorders of many organ systems; causes profound & varied metabolic effects, modifies the immune response of the body to diverse stimuli, & is also used as replacement therapy for adrenocortical deficient patients
      • Cortiosteriods should be used with caution in patients with DM, HTN, osteoporosis, glaucoma, cataracts, TB, hepatic impairment, elderly
    • Propofol (Diprivan):
      • General anesthetic; no analgesic properties
      • Avoid abrupt discontinuation- titrate slowly
      • Propofol emulsion contains soybean oil, egg phosphatide & glycerol
      • “Propofol infusion syndrome”: symptoms include sever, sporadic metabolic acidosis &/or lactic acidosis which may be associated with tachycardia, myocardial dysfunction, &/or rhabdomyolysis
      • Short duration of action: 3-10 minutes
      • If on concurrent parenteral nutrition, may need to adjust the amount of lipid infused
      • Provides 1.1 kCal/mL
    • Riopan:
      • Magaldrate (antacid) & simethicone (antiflatulent) combination
      • Substitutes can be found in the Non-Prescription Handbook & Facts & Comparisons
    • Robitussin:
      • Robitussin: guaifenesin 100 mg/5 mL-OTC
        • Alcohol free
      • Robitussin PE: guaifenesin 200 mg & pseudoephedrine 30 mg/5mL –OTC
        • Alcohol free
      • Robitussin CF: guaifenesin 100 mg, pseudoephedrine 30 mg, & dextromethorphan 10 mg/5 mL -OTC
        • Alcohol free
      • Robitussin DM: guaifenesin 100 mg & dextromethorphan 10 mg/5 mL –OTC
        • Alcohol free
    • Ursodiol (Actigall, Urso 250, Urso Forte):
      • Use: prevention of gallstones in obese patients experiencing rapid weight loss
      • AKA: ursodeoxycholic acid
      • MOA: decreases cholesterol content of bile & bile stones by reducing the secretion of cholesterol from the liver & the fractional reabsorption of cholesterol by the intestines
      • Dosing:
        • Gallstone dissolution: 8-10 mg/Kg/day in 2-3 divided doses
        • Gallstone prevention: 300 mg BID
      • Use beyond 24 months is not established
    • Vecuronium:
      • Nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocker agent
      • MOA: blocks acetylcholine from binding to receptors on motor endplate by inhibiting depolarization
      • Onset: 2-4 minutes
      • DOA: 30-45 minutes
      • Use: adjunct to general anesthesia to facilitate endotracheal intubation & to relax skeletal muscles during surgery; does not relieve pain or produce sedation
      • AE: bradycardia, edema, flushing, hypersensitivity rxn, hypotension, tachycardia, rash

    Miscellaneous Facts:
    • Danger of decreasing DKA too fast: cerebral edema
    • Genetic polymorphism exists as acetylation
    • Albumin is important for measuring calcium levels
      • Corrected calcium = serum calcium + 0.8(4 – patient’s albumin)
    • Caffeine treats respiratory distress in neonates
    • Emergency bee sting kit:
      • Epinephrine & APAP
      • EpiPen auto-Injector
        • 0.3 mg SQ dose of 1:1000 epinephrine in a 2 mL disposable prefilled injector
    • Liposyn III (fat emulsion) is stored at room temperature
    • MedWatch: a list of reported side effect
      • Completely voluntarily reported
    • Stain dermatologists use for fungus identification: KOH
    • Kayexlate + sorbitol use: to prevent constipation
      • Store at room temperature
    • Hypercalcemia: almost always caused by increased entry of Ca into the extracellular fluid & decreased renal Ca clearance
      • More that 90% of cases are due to primary hyperparathyroidism or malignancy
    • Hypocalcemia in renal impairment:
      • Phosphorus & calcium levels are altered due to:
        • Phosphorus retention, resulting in a rise in serum phosphorus levels & a reciprocal fall in calcium levels, with resultant stimulation of parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion
        • Decreased generation of 1,25-dihyroxyvitamin D3, further contributing to low serum calcium levels & decreasing suppression of PTH
      • Addition of a phosphate binder prevent GI phosphate absorption:
        • Calcium carbonate 500-1000 mg po with meals
        • Sevelamer (Renagel): lacks aluminum & calcium
    • Cheilitis: inflammation of the lips
    • Herpes simplex I (cold sore): avoid the sunlight
    • Goodpasture’s syndrome: glomerulonephritis associated with pulmonary hermorrhage & circulating antibodies against basement membrane antigens
      • Autoimmune disease
    • Resorcinol/ASA/LCD needs to be packaged in what container
      • LCD is coal tar- brown glass container
    • Medrol dose pack: decremental dosing
    • Polydipsia: excessive thirst
    • Patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) must avoid aspartame

    Myasthenia Gravis:
    • An autoimmune disorder that involve antibody-mediated disruption of postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction & is often associated with thymus tumors
    • Treatment:
      • Anticholinesterase drugs:
        • Pyridostigmine
        • Neostigmine
      • Thymectomy
      • Immunosuppressive drugs
        • High-dose prednisone
        • Azathioprine
        • Cyclosporine
        • Cyclophosphamide

    Orange Book:
    • AKA: Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations
    • Codes:
      • A: Drug products that FDA considers to be therapeutically equivalent to other pharmaceutically equivalent products, i.e., drug products for which:
        • there are no known or suspected bioequivalence problems. These are designated AA, AN, AO, AP, or AT, depending on the dosage form; or
        • actual or potential bioequivalence problems have been resolved with adequate in vivo and/or in vitro evidence supporting bioequivalence. These are designated AB
        • AA Products in conventional dosage forms not presenting bioequivalence problems
    § AB, AB1, AB2, AB3... Products meeting necessary bioequivalence requirements
        • AN Solutions and powders for aerosolization
        • AO Injectable oil solutions
        • AP Injectable aqueous solutions &, in certain instances, intravenous non-aqueous solutions
        • AT Topical products
      • B: Drug products that FDA at this time, considers NOT to be therapeutically equivalent to other pharmaceutically equivalent products, i.e.,
        • drug products for which actual or potential bioequivalence problems have not been resolved by adequate evidence of bioequivalence. Often the problem is with specific dosage forms rather than with the active ingredients. These are designated BC, BD, BE, BN, BP, BR, BS, BT, BX, or B*.
        • B* Drug products requiring further FDA investigation & review to determine therapeutic equivalence
        • BC Extended-release dosage forms (capsules, injectables & tablets)
        • BD Active ingredients & dosage forms with documented bioequivalence problems
        • BE Delayed-release oral dosage forms
        • BN Products in aerosol-nebulizer drug delivery systems
        • BP Active ingredients & dosage forms with potential bioequivalence problems
        • BR Suppositories or enemas that deliver drugs for systemic absorption
        • BS Products having drug standard deficiencies
        • BT Topical products with bioequivalence issues
        • BX Drug products for which the data are insufficient to determine therapeutic equivalence

    Osteopenia/Ostoporosis:
    • T scores are used for diagnosis:
      • Osteopenia: T score -1 to -2.5 SD below the young adult mean
      • Osteoporosis: T score ≤ -2.5 SD below the young adult mean
    • Bisphosphonates:
      • Could worsen esophagitis
      • Take with a full glass of water fir thing in the AM & at least 30 minutes before the 1st food or beverage of the day
      • Maximize therapy by taking calcium + vitamin D
      • Alendronate (Fosmax):
        • Prevention dose: 5 mg QD or 35 mg Q week
        • Treatment dose: 10 mg QD or 70 mg Q week
        • Dosage forms: solution & tablet
      • Ibandronate (Boniva):
        • Prevention dose: 2.5 mg QD; 150 mg Q month may be considered
        • Treatment dose: 2.5 mg QD or 150 mg Q month
      • Risedronate (Actonel):
        • Prevention dose: 5 mg QD or 35 mg Q week may be considered
        • Treatment dose: 5 mg QD or 35 mg Q week
    • Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator:
      • Raloxifene (Evista):
        • MOA: estrogen receptor agonist at the skeleton decreases resorption of bone & overall bone turnover
        • 60 mg QD for treatment & prevention of osteoporosis
        • SE: increased risk of thromboembolism, hot flashes, nausea, dyspepsia, weight gain
    • Teriparatide (Forteo):
      • Parathyroid hormone (PTH) analog for osteoporosis
      • MOA: stimulates osteoblast function, increases GI calcium absorption, increases renal tubular reabsorption of calcium
      • Dosage: injection
      • Storage: refrigerate; discard pen 28 days after 1st injection

    OTC:
    • Aluminum hydroxide (ALternaGel, Amphojel):
      • Use: for treatment of hyperacidity & hyperphosphatemia
      • MOA: neutralizes hydrochloride in stomach to form Al(Cl)3 salt + H2O
      • Dose:
        • Hyperphosphatemia: 300-600 mg TID with meals (within 20 minutes of meal)
        • Hyperacidity: 600-1200 mg between meals & at bedtime
      • Aluminum may accumulate in renal impairment
      • Dose should be followed with water
    • Antidiarrheal agents:
      • Bismuth subsalicylate (Kaopectate)
        • Has both antisecretory & antimicrobial actions while possibly providing anti-inflammatory action as well
    • Atopic dermatisis:
      • Hydrocortisone
    • Capsacin (Zostrix, Capzasin):
      • MOA: induces the release of substance P, the principle chemomediator of pain impulses from the periphery to the CNS; after repeated application, the neuron is depleted of substance P
      • Apply to the affected area at least 3-4 times/day
        • If applied less than this, decreased efficacy
      • Strength: 0.025%, 0.075%
    • Delsyn
      • Dextromethorphan
      • Contains 0.26% alcohol
    • Diaper rash:
      • Breast-fed infants have less diaper rash than do bottle-fed infants
      • Skin protectants to treat:
        • Allantoin, calamine, cod liver oil (in combination), dimethicone, kaolin, lanolin (in combination), mineral oil, petrolatum, talc, topical cornstarch, white petrolatum, zinc oxide, zinc oxide ointment
      • Can use Mycolog cream (triamcinalone & nystatin)
      • Candidiasis (?)
    • Fleet’s Phospho-Soda (Sodium Phosphate):
      • CI: CHF, ascites, patients on a Na restricted diet
      • Saline laxative
    • Gaviscon:
      • Aluminum hydroxide & magnesium trisilicate
      • Use: temporary relief of hyperacidity
      • Dose: chew 2-4 tablets QID
      • Aluminum &/or magnesium may accumulate in renal impairment
      • Do not swallow tablets whole
    • Loratidine (Claritin, Alavert):
      • Nonsedating antihistamine
      • Patients with liver or renal impairment should start with a lower dose (10 mg QOD)
      • Do not use in children <2
      • Dosing:
        • 2-5 years old: 5 mg QD
        • >6: 10 mg QD
      • Take on an empty stomach
      • Available as: syrup, tablet, rapidly disintegrating tablets
    • Magnesium citrate (Citro-Mag):
      • Saline laxative
      • Use: evacuation of bowel prior to surgery & diagnostic procedures or overdose situations
      • CI: renal failure, DM, GI complications
    • Milk of magnesia:
      • Magnesium hydroxide
      • Short-term treatment of occasional constipation
    • Nicotine Replacement therapy:
      • Products: patch, gum, lozenge, inhaler (Nicotrol Inhaler- Rx only), nasal spray (Nicotrol NS- Rx only)
    • Ostomy care:
      • Three basic types of ostomies:
        • Ileostomy
        • Colostomy (most common)
        • Urinary diversion
      • Effect of food on stoma output:
        • Foods that thicken:
          • Applesauce, bananas, bread, buttermilk, cheese, pasta, potatoes, pretzels, rice yogurt
        • Foods that loosen:
          • Alcohol, chocolate, beans, fried or greasy foods, spicy foods, leafy veg
        • Foods that cause stool odor:
          • Asparagus, beans, cheese, eggs, fish, garlic
        • Foods that cause urine odor:
          • Asparagus, seafood, spices
        • Foods that combat urine odor:
          • Buttermilk, cranberry juice, yogurt
      • Local complications:
        • Local irritation: can occur because the output from the intestines or kidneys can irritate the skin around the stoma
          • Patient can use: karaya powder, pectin base powder, ostomy creams, or barriers to protect the skin
        • Alakaline dermatitis: occurs in patients with urinary diversions because of the alkaline nature of the output
          • Major cause of blood in the pouch because it renders the stoma extremely friable
          • Treatment is acidification of the urine (cranberry juice 2-3 quarts daily)
        • Excoriation: caused by erosion of the epidermis by digestive enzymes
          • The eroded or denuded epidermis may bleed, & is painful when touched when applying the appliance
          • Treatment: karaya or pectin-based powder may be applied to the peristomal skin prior to application of the pouch, more frequent changing of the pouch
        • Infection: candida species
          • 2% miconzaole powder or nystatin powder
      • Fitting an ostomy:
        • Pouch opening may be cut to fit or presized
          • If they are cut to fit, the stoma pattern is traced onto the skin barrier-wafer surface of the pouch & then cut out before being applied
        • The diameter of the round stoma is measured at the base, where the mucosa meets the skin, which is considered the widest measurement
        • Oval stomas should be measured at both their widest & narrowest diameters
        • A stoma may swell if the appliance fits too tightly or slips, or if the patient falls or experiences a hard blow to the stoma
        • Other consideration include: body contour, stoma location, skin creases & scars, & type of ostomy
        • To prevent leakage, the pouch should be emptied when it is 1/3 – 1/2 full
        • The flange & skin barrier may be left in place for 3-7 days, depending on the condition of the skin & skin barrier
        • Water will not enter the stoma so it is not necessary to cover it while swimming, bathing, or showering
    • Oxymetazoline (Afrin):
      • Adrenergic agonist; vasoconstrictor
      • Rebound congestion may occur with extended use (>3 days)
      • Caution in the presence of HTN, DM, hyperthyroidism, CAD, asthma
      • Increased toxicity with MAOI
      • Do not use if it changes color or becomes cloudy
      • MOA: stimulates alpha-adrenergic receptors in the arterioles of the nasal mucosa to produce vasoconstriction
      • Approved for >6 years old
    • Poison ivy:
      • Urushiol plant
      • Urushiol can spread quickly over body
      • Vesiclar fluid cannot further spread
        • Or not spread from the exudates of the blisters
      • Topical anesthetics: benzocaine & pramoxine
      • Hydrocortisone
      • Astringents:
        • Aluminum acetate (Burrow’s solution, Domeboro Powder), zince oxide, zinc acetate, sodium bicarbonate, calamine, witch hazel (hamamelis waters)
      • Colloidal oatmeal baths to help to provide skin hydration, to aide in cleansing or removing skin debris, & to allay the drying & tightening symptoms
      • Antihistamines
    • Robitussin:
      • Guaifenesin: an expectorant used to help loosen phlegm & thin bronchial secretions to make coughs more productive
    • Warts:
      • Plantar warts:
        • Clear Away Wart Remover: Salicyclic acid 40%
        • Wart off
        • Dr. Scholls Clear Away

    Pain:
    • Pure Mu Agonists: strong opioids for severe pain
      • Fentyl:
        • Sublimaze: injection
        • Duragesic: transdermal patch (change Q 3 days)
          • 5 patches per box
        • Actiq: lozenge
      • Hydromorphone (Dilaudid):
        • Can cause seizures
        • Dosage forms: tablet, liquid, suppository, injection (a slight yellowish discoloration has not been associated with loss of potency
      • Levoophanol (Levo-Dromoran)
        • Dosage forms: tablet & injection
      • Meperidine (Demerol, Meperitab):
        • MOA: binds to opiate receptors in the CNS, causing inhibition of ascending pain pathways, altering the perception of & response of pain
        • Dosed Q 3-4 hours
        • Hepatic metabolite, normeperidine, can buildup & cause seizures
          • Do not use in patients with seizure disorders
        • Avoid use with MAOIs
          • Isocarboxazid (Marplan)
          • Selegiline (Eldepryl, Deprenyl)- Parkinson’s
          • Phenelzine (Nardil)
          • Tranylcypromine (Parnate)
      • Methadone (Dolophine, Methdose):
        • Dosage forms: tablet, liquid, injection
      • Morphine (Astramorph/PF, Avinza (ER cap), DepoDur, Duramorph, Infumorph, Kadian (SR), MS Contin (ER or SR), MSIR (IR), Oramorph SR, RMS, Roxanol):
        • MOA: binds to opiate receptors in the CNS, causing inhibition of ascending pain pathways, altering the perception of & response of pain
        • Can cause: hypotension, bradycardia, respiratory depression
        • Vasodilatory properties
        • Dosage forms:
          • Capsules (ER, SR)
          • Infusion
          • Injection (ER liposomal suspension for lumbar epidural injection)
          • Injection, solution
          • Solution
          • Suppository
          • Tablet (CR, ER, SR)
      • Oxycodone (OxyIR, Roxicodone, Percocet, OxyContin (CR)):
      • Oxymorphone (Numorphan-suppository)
        • Dosage forms: injection & suppository
    • Pure mu agonists: mild to moderate pain
      • Codeine (Tylenol #3)
      • Hydrocodone:
        • With APAP:
          • Vicoden 5/500; Vicoden ES 7.5/750; Lorcet or Vicodin HP 10/650; Lortab 2.5/500, 5/500, 7.5/500, 10/500; Norco 5/325, 7.5/325, 10/325
        • With IBU:
          • Vicoprofen 7.5/200
      • Propoxyphene:
        • Propoxyphene/APAP:
          • Darvocet-N-50 (50/325); Darvocet-N-100 (100/650)
          • Darvon 32, 65 mg
    • Agonists-antagonists:
      • Buprenorphine (Buprenex)
      • Butorphanol (Stadol)
        • Available as: injection & nasal spray
      • Dezocine (Dalgan)
      • Nalbuphine (Nubain)
        • Injection only
      • Pentazocine:
        • 50 mg tablet: Talwin
        • 50 mg/naloxone 0.5 mg tablet: Talwin NX
        • 12.5/ASA 325 tablet: Talwin Compound
    • Miscellaneous:
      • Tramadol (Ultram)
        • 400 mg max
      • Ultracet (Tramadol/APAP 37.5/325)
    • NSAIDS:
      • Indomethacin (Indocin):
        • Dosage:
          • Inflammatory/RA: 25-50 mg/day 2-3 times/day; max 200 mg/day
        • Dosage forms: IR & SR capsule, injection & suspension
      • Ketorolac (Toradol):
        • Do NOT use for more than 5 days
        • NMT 40 mg/day po
        • Acular: ophthalmic dosage form
      • Nabumetone (Relafen):
        • For Official Answer & RA
        • Dosing: 1000 mg/day; an additional 500-1000 mg may be needed in some patients; may be administered QD or BID; NMT 2000 mg/day
        • Take with food or milk to decrease GI upset
      • Diclofenac (Voltaren)
      • Etodolac (Lodine)
      • Tolmetin (Tolectin)
      • Sulindac (Clinoril)
      • Fenoprofen (Nalfon)
      • Flurbiprofen (Ansaid)
      • Ibuprofen (Motrin)
      • Ketoprofen (Orudis, Oruvail-SR)
      • Naproxen (Naprosyn)
      • Oxaprozin (Daypro)
      • Meclofenamate (Meclomen)
      • Piroxicam (Feldene)
      • Celecoxib (Celebrex)
      • Interferes with ACEIs, ARBs, & diuretics
    • Conversions:
      • Usual ratio is Morphine 8 to dilaudid 1
      • Methadone 10 mg = hydromorphone 7.5 mg (po) & 1.5 mg (IM)

    Parkinson’s:
    • A chronic progressive neurologic disorder with symptoms that present as a variable combination of rigidity, tremor, bradykinesia, & changes in posture & ambulation
    • Primary Parkinson’s- no identified cause
    • Secondary Parkinson’s- may be the result of drug use (i.e. reserpine, metoclopramide, antipsychotics), infections, trauma, or toxins
    • Progressive degeneration of the substantia nigra in the brain with a decrease in dopaminergic cells
    • Drug therapy:
      • Want medications that will increase dopamine or dopamine activity by directly stimulating dopamine receptors or by blocking acetylcholine activity, which results in increased dopamine effects
      • Carbidopa-levodopa (Sinemet):
        • MOA; levodopa increases DA; carbidopa prevents metabolism of levodopa allowing more to enter the blood brain barrier
        • Take on an empty stomach & eat shortly after to prevent N/V
      • Direct stimulation of DA receptors:
        • Bromocriptine (Parlodel)
        • Pergolide (Permax)
        • Pramipexole (Mirapex)
        • Ropinirole (Requip)
      • Selegiline (Eldepryl, Carbex, Atapryl, Selpak):
        • MOA: inhibits MAOB; increases DA & 5-HT
      • Inhibits COMT; increases DA:
        • Entacapone (Comtan)
        • Tolcapone (Tasmar)
      • Amantadine (Symmetrel):
        • MOA: may increase presynaptic release of DA, blocks reuptake
      • Blocks acetylcholine, may balance DA:
        • Benztropine (Cogentin)
        • Trihexyphenidyl (Artane)
      • Vitamin E- antioxidant; mixed results

    Pediatrics:
    • EES ointment given in neonate to prevent gonorrhea infection in the eyes
    • Vitamin K is given to babies until they can produce their own
    • Beractant (Survanta):
      • Lung surfactant
      • Prevention & treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in premature infants
      • If <1250 g: at risk for developing or with evidence of surfactant deficiency
      • Given within 15 minutes of birth
    • Colfosceril (Exosurf): respiratory surfactant
      • Administered intrathecheally
        <LI style="MARGIN: 0in 0in 0pt; COLOR: black" class=yiv1922353117MsoNormal>Respiratory distress syndrome in the newborn: 5 mL (67.5 mg) per kg birthweight INTRATRACHEALLY Q 12 hr for 3 doses
      • MOA: colfosceril, cetyl alcohol, & tyloxapol combination, when used as a replacement for deficient endogenous lung surfactant, is effective in reducing the surface tension of pulmonary fluids, thereby increasing lung compliance properties in RDS to prevent alveolar collapse & decrease work in breathing
        • The possibility exists that it may also improve ventilation/perfusion matching, independent of its direct effect on lung compliance
    • Neural tube defects are a result of a decrease in folic acid (while pregnant)
    • Acetaminophen:
      • <12 years: 10-15 mg/Kg/dose Q 4-6 hours prn (NMT 5 doses: 2.6 g in 24 hours)
    • Ibuprofen:
      • 6 months – 12 years
        • Temperature <102.5°F: 5 mg/Kg/dose
        • Temperature >102.5°F: 10 mg/Kg/dose
        • Q 6-8 hours; max daily dose: 40 mg/Kg/day
    • Theophylline can be used as a respiratory stimulant in babies

    Pharmaceutics:
    • Bioavailability: refers to the rate & extent of absorption
      • Absolute bioavailability: the fraction (or %) of a dose administered non-IV (or extravascularly) that is systemically available (compared to an IV dose)
        • If given orally, absolute bioavailability (F) is:
          • F = (DIV/DPO) X (AUCPO/AUCIV)
      • Relative bioavailability: the fraction of a dose administered as a test formulation that is systemically available as compared to a reference formulation:
        • F = (AUCtest formulation/AUCreference) X ( Dreference/Dtest formulation)
    • Compounding:
      • Glycerin, talc, starch, witch hazel = suspension
        • Talc is not soluble
        • Starch is not very soluble
      • To make a oleaginuous base use: white petrolatum
      • Trituration: the process of grinding a drug in a mortar to reduce its particle size
    • Drug color change due to: oxidation
    • Filters:
      • 0.22 micron filter does NOT remove pyrogens
    • Methylcellulose: a suspending agent (semisynthetic hydrocolloids)
    • Selected dosage forms:
      • Butorphanol (Stadol)
        • Injection, intranasal spray
      • Calcitonin (Miacaclin)
        • Injection, intranasal spray
        • Stored in refrigerator
      • Desmopressin (DDAVP, Stimate)
        • Injection, intranasal spray, tablets
      • All three above come in a nasal inhaler
      • Budesonide:
        • Capsules (Entocort), nasal suspension, powder for oral inhalation, suspension for oral inhalation
      • Fluticasone:
        • Aerosol for oral inhalation, cream (Cutivate), ointment, powder for oral inhalation, suspension intranasal spray
    • Rizatriptan (Maxalt), loratadine (Claritin), ondansetron (Zofran) are all available as an orally disintegrating tablet (ODT)
    • Mg sterate: lubricant in tablet
      • Excess will cause alteration in tablet dissolution due to decreased rate of tablet break down (would slow down)
    • Incompatibility:
      • Pick pair of drugs with one acid & one base
    • Storage:
      • Liposyn-II
        • Fat emulsion
        • May be stored at room temperature
        • Do not store partly used bottle for later use
        • Do not use if emulsion appears to be oiling out
      • Room temperature antibiotic suspensions:
        • Clarithromycin (Biaxin); sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (Bactrim); azithromycin (Zithromax); cefdinir (Omnicef)
    • Furosemide has a pka of 3.7 at physiologic pH will it be 25% ionized, 75% ionized, all ionized, all ionized or can’t determine?
      • Furosemide (one word generic name) is an acid; acids are all non-ionized at acidic pH but are ionized at basic pH; physiologic pH is 7.4 which is quite alkaline compared to 3.7; means furosemide ionized to non-ionized ratio would be > 1:1000, so totally ionized
      • Naproxen pka = 4.2 what would happen at plasma pH?
        • Same as above because naproxen is also an acid
    • Typical pharmaceutical ingredients:
      • Antifungal preservative: used in liquid & semisolid formulations to prevent growth of fungi
        • Ex: benzoic acid, butylparaben, ethylparaben, sodium benzoate, sodium propionate
      • Antimicrobial preservative: used in liquid & semisold formulations to prevent growth of microorganisms
        • Ex: benzalkonium chloride, benzyl alcohol, cetylpyridinium chloride, phenyl ethyl alcohol
      • Antioxidant: used to prevent oxidation
        • Ex: ascorbic acid, ascorbyl palmitate, sodium ascorbate, sodium bisulfate, sodium metabisulfite
      • Emulsifying agent: used to promote & maintain dispersion of finely divided droplets of a liquid in a vehicle in which it is immiscible
        • Ex: acacia, cetyl alcohol, glyceryl monostearate, sorbitan monostearate
      • Surfactant: used to reduce surface or interfacial tension
        • Ex: polysorbate 80, sodium lauryl sulfate, sorbitan monopalmitate
      • Plasticizer: used to enhance coat spread over tablets, beads, & granules
        • Ex: glycerin, diethyl palmitate
      • Suspending agent: used to reduce sedimentation rate of drug particles dispersed throughout a vehicle in which they are not soluble
        • Ex: Carbopol, hydroxymethylcellulose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, methylcellulose, tragacanth
      • Binder: used to cause adhesion of powder particles in tablet granulations
        • Ex: acacia, alginic acid, ethylcellulose, starch, povidone
      • Diluent: used as fillers to create desired bulk, flow properties, & compression characteristics in tablet & capsule preparations
        • Ex: kaolin, lactose, mannitol, cellulose, sorbitol, starch
      • Disintegrant: used to promote disruption of solid mass into small particles
        • Ex: microcrystalline cellulose, carboxymethylcellulose calcium, sodium alginate, sodium starch, glycolate, alginic acid
      • Glidant: used to improve flow properties of powder mixture
        • Ex: colloidal silica, cornstarch, talc
      • Lubricant: used to reduce friction during tablet compression & facilitate ejection of tablets from the die cavity
        • Ex: calcium stearate, magnesium stearate, mineral oil, stearic acid, zinc stearate
      • Humectant: used for prevention of dryness of ointment & creams
        • Ex: glycerin, propylene glycol, sorbitol

    Pharmacokinetics:
    • Tests used to test for drug absorption in GI:
      • Dissolution
      • Disintegration: must occur before dissolution can occur
      • Hardness: hardness of a tablet influences its ability to break apart in the stomach
      • All can be tested in vitro

    Pregnancy:
    • Tocolytics (stops labor):
      • Magnesium is a tocolytic
    • Labor inducers:
      • Prostaglandins and oxytocin both cause labor to start or proceed
      • Oxytocin (Pitocin) is parenteral only (usually IV)
      • PGE-2 does come in a gel that is applied to ripen the cervix prior to induction of labor & in suppositories (still technically topical) to induce labor
    • Fetal alcohol syndrome: facial deformities (low nasal bridge, flat midface), postnatal growth retardation, or mental retardation
    • Treatment of patent ductus arteriosus:
      • *Indocin injection*
        • IV indomethacin
      • Ibuprofen
      • Oxygen
      • Diuretics
      • Purpose of the ductus arteriosus in utero: to shunt blood from the pulmonary artery to the aorta
    • Hydroxyurea (Droxia, Hydrea): use to increase fetal hemoglobin in sickle cell patients

    Priaprism:
    • Causative agents: chlorpromazine, prazosin, trazodone, other phenothiazines, antihypertensives, anticoagulants, corticosteroids, & any drug used to produce an erection
      • PDE-5 inhibitors:
        • Sildenafil (Viagra)
        • Vardenafil (Levitra)
        • Tadalafil (Cialis)
          • Can last up to 36 hours

    Psoriasis:
    • Chronic, epidermal proliferative disease characterized by erythematous, dry scaling patches, recurring remissions & exacerbations
    • Treatment:
      • Mild to moderate disease:
        • Emollients BID: soft yellow paraffin or aqueous cream; petrolatum or Aquaphor cream (greasier & more effective)
        • Topical, low potency corticosteroids on delicate skin (face, genitals): alclometasone dipropionate, triamcinolone acetonide 0.025%, hydrocortisone 2.5%
        • Topical, medium potency cortisteroids: fluticasone propionate, triamcinolone acetonide 0.1%, hydrocortisone valerate, mometasone furoate
        • Topical, strong potency: betamethasone dipropionate, halcinonide, fluocinonide, desoximetasone
        • Topical, super potency: augmented betamethasone dipropionate, diflorasone diacetate, clobetasol propionate, halobetasol propionate
          • Limit use to 2 weeks
          • Avoid occlusive dressings
        • Intralesional corticosteroid: 2-5 mg/mL triamcinolone acetonide
        • Coal tar (Estar, PsoriGel) as an alterative to topical steroids
        • Keratolytic agents to decrease scales: salicyclic acid 6% gel
        • UV lamps & sunlight are effective- best option for pregnancy or young children
          • Anthralin ointment 1% or higher prior to light
      • Severe disease:
        • Triamcinolone, intralesional mix
        • Vitamin D analogs (calcipotriene ointment 0.05%- not on face)
        • Acitretin (Soriatane)
        • Tazarotene (Tazorac)
        • Methotrexate, hydroxyurea, azathioprine, or cyclosporine
      • Triamcinolone (Aristocort A; Aristocort Forte; Aristospan; Azmacort; Kenalog; Nasacort AQ; Nasacort HFA; Tri-Nasal; Triderm)

    Psychriatric Disorders:
    • ADHD:
      • Methylphenidate (Concerta, Methadate, Methylin, Ritalin)
        • MOA: reuptake blockade of catecholamine (NE & DA) in presynaptic nerve endings
        • Dosage form of Concerta: 18, 27, 36, 54 mg ER tablets
          • NOT SR
      • Atomoxetine (Strattera):
        • BBW for suicide ideation in children
        • MOA: NE reuptake inhibitor
        • Dosed once daily (advantage over Concerta)
    • Antidepressants:
      • SSRIs:
        • MOA: selectively inhibit the reuptake of 5-HT
        • Citalopram (Celexa)
        • Escitalopram (Lexapro)
        • Fluvoxamine (Luvox)
        • Sertraline (Zoloft)
          • Auxiliary labeling:
            • No etoh
            • May cause drowsiness or dizziness
            • May cause sexual dysfunction
            • Take in AM to prevent insomnia in PM
        • Fluoxetine (Prozac):
          • Does not require tapering because of its long half life
          • Take in AM
        • Paroxetine (Paxil):
          • Take in AM to reduce chances of insomnia
          • Paxil CR incorporates a degradable polymeric matrix (Geomatrix) to control dissolution rate over a period of 4-5 hours
            • EC delays the start of drug release until tablets have left the stomach
        • May take 4 weeks to see effects
      • Miscellaneous:
        • Bupropion (Wellbutrin, Zyban):
          • MOA: dopamine reuptake inhibitor
          • CI with history of seizure disorder
        • Venlafaxine (Effexor):
          • MOA: inhibits the reuptake of 5-HT & NE (& DA at higher doses)
          • Referred to as a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI)
          • XR formulation is available to decrease GI upset
          • Not recommended in patients with uncontrolled HTN, recent MI, or CV disorders
        • Duloxetine (Cymbalta):
          • MOA: potent inhibitor of 5-HT & NE (no DA activity)
          • Indicated for both major depression & diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain
          • CI: uncontrolled narrow-angle glaucoma
        • Trazodone (Desyrel):
          • MOA: inhibits 5-HT reuptake & blocks 5-HT2A receptors
        • Nefazodone (Serzone):
          • MOA: inhibits 5-HT & NE uptake & blocks 5-HT2A receptors
        • Mirtazapine (Remeron):
          • MOA: antagonizes presynaptic α-2 autoreceptors & heteroreceptors that prevent the release of 5-HT & NE (resulting in increased 5-HT & NE in the synapses); antagonizes 5-HT2A & 5-HT3 receptors, resulting in less GI upset & less anxiety
      • Combinations:
        • Olanzapine & fluoxetine (Symbax):
          • Atypical antipsychotic agent/SSRI
          • Use: treatment of depressive episodes associated with bipolar disorder
      • MAOIs:
        • MOA: increase the synaptic concentration of NE, 5-HT, & DA by inhibiting the breakdown enzyme, monoamine oxidase
        • Isocarboxazid (Marplan)
        • Phenelzine (Nardil)
        • Tranylcypromine (Parnate)
        • Medications to avoid on MAOIs:
          • Compazine
          • Phenylpropanolamine: tyramine-like reaction
          • Pseudoephedrine: tyramine-like reaction
          • Meperidine (Demerol): life-threatening serotonin syndrome-like reaction
          • Methyldopa (Aldomet): hypertensive crisis
          • Morphine (Roxanol, MS Contin): CNS depression
          • Reserpine (Ser-Ap-Es): increased catecholamines
          • Serotonergic agents (i.e. fluoxetine): serotonin syndrome
      • TCAs:
        • MOA: increase the synaptic concentration of 5-HT &/or NE in the CNS by inhibiting the presynaptic neuronal membrane’s reuptake of 5-HT or NE
        • Amitriptyline (Elavil)
          • Off label use: neuropathic pain
        • Nortriptyline (Pamelor, Aventyl)
        • Imipramine (Tofranil)
        • Doxepin (Sinequan)
        • Clomipramine (Anafranil)
        • Desipramine (Norpramin)
    • Antipsychotics:
      • Atypical:
        • Arpiprazole (Abilify):
          • AE: insomnia, +/- weight gain
          • Once daily dosing benefit
          • Partial dopamine agonist
        • Clozapine (Clozaril, FazaClo-ODT:
          • For refractory schizophrenia only
          • A Dibenzodiazepine
          • AE: sedation, weight gain, hypersalivation, seizure risk
          • Weekly CBC with diff required
            • WBC <3500 or ANC <1500 MUST discontinue
        • Olanzapine (Zyprexa, Zydis-ODT):
          • MOA: a thienobenzodiazepine antipsychotic that is believed to work by antagonizing dopamine & serotonin activities
            • It is a selective monoaminergic antagonist with high affinity binding to 5-HT2A & 5-HT2C, dopamine D1-4, muscarinic M1-5, histamine H1 & α-1 receptor sites
            • Binds weakly to GABA-A, BZD, & beta-adrenergic receptors
          • AE: sedation, orthostasis
        • Quetiapine (Seroquel):
          • A dibenzothiazepine
          • Low EPS risk
        • Risperidone (Resperdal):
          • Benzisoxazole
          • Use: schizophrenia, bipolar
          • Dosage forms: injection, solution, tablet, ODT
        • Ziprasidone (Geodon)
          • Benzisothiazoyl
          • AE: +/- sedation, +/- weight gain, QT prolongation
      • Typical:
        • Chlorpromazine (Thorazine)
        • Fluphenzaine (Prolixin)
        • Haloperidol (Haldol)
          • SE: Hyper-, hypotension, tachycardia, arrhythmias, torsade de points, EPS, anxiety, alopecia, rash, gynecomastia, jaundice, blurred vision
        • Thioridazine (Mellaril)
          • BBW: QT prolongation
        • Thiothixene (Navane)
          • a psychotropic agent derived from thioxanthene & clinically useful in the tx of schizophrenia
          • Similarities in chemical & pharmacological properties exist between this agent & piperazine phenothiazines
    • Anxiolytic agents:
      • Benzodiazepines:
        • MOA: potentiate the actions of GABA by increasing the influx of Cl ions into neurons
        • Alprazolam (Xanax, Niravam-ODT)
        • Chlordiazepoxide (Librium)
          • Available as injection
            • Prior to reconstitution, keep refrigerated & protected from light
            • Should be used immediately following reconstitution
        • Clonazepam (Klonopin)
          • Available as an orally disintegrating wafer
        • Clorazepate (Tranxene)
        • Diazepam (Valium)
          • Available as injection
            • Potency is retained for up to 3 months when kept at room temp
        • Estazolam (Prosam)
        • Flurazepam (Dalmane)
        • Halazepam (Paxipam)
        • Lorazepam (Ativan)
          • Available as an injection
          • Intact vials should be refrigerated & protected from light
          • Do not use if discolored
          • Injectable vials may be stored at room temperature for up to 60 days
          • Parenteral admixture is stable at room temperature for 24 hours
        • Oxazepam (Serax)
        • Prazepam (Centrax)
        • Quazepam (Doral)
        • Temazepam (Restoril)
        • Trazolam (Halcion)
        • Lorazepam, oxazepam, & temazepam ( LOT ) are conjugated & preferred in patients with hepatic dysfunction & elderly patients
        • Chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, & lorazepam available for IV use
        • Never abruptly discontinue
        • Avoid in pregnancy- cause cleft palate
      • Buspirone (BuSpar):
        • MOA: unknown. It exhibits high affinity for serotonin (5-HT1A) receptors, moderate affinity for brain D2-dopamine receptors & no significant affinity for benzodiazepine receptors. It has no effect on GABA binding.
        • Non-FDA labeled indication: depression
        • Non-sedating
        • No grapefruit
        • Take consistently either with or without food
    • EPS treatment:
      • Dystonia: state of abnormal tonicity, sometimes described simplistically as a severe “muscle spasm”
        • Benzotropine mesylate 2 mg
        • Diphenhydramine 50 mg IV or IM
        • Diazepam 5-10 mg by slow IV push
        • Lorazepam 1-2 mg IM
      • Akathisia: inability to sit still & being functionally mortor restless
        • Diazepam 5 mg TID
        • Propanolol 10 mg QD
        • Nadolol 80 mg QD
          • Beta 2 selective are less effective
      • Pseudoparkinsonism: an AP-induced extrapyramidal side effect, resembles idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease
        • Patient may have slurred speech & a drooping face
        • Trihexyphenidyl 2-5 mg TID
        • Diphenhydramine 25-50 mg TID
        • Biperiden (Akineton) 2 mg TID
        • Amantadine
      • Tardive dyskinesia: syndrome characterized by abnormal involuntary movements occurring late in onset in relation to initiation or AP therapy
        • No FDA approved agents
        • α-tocopherol (vitamin E) 1200-1600 IU has been tried
    • Mood stabilizers:
      • Bipolar
      • Lithium (Eskalith CR, Lithobid, Eskalith, Cibalith-S--syrup):
        • Use: bipolar disorder
        • CI: renal disease, severe CVD, pregnancy
        • SE: hyponatremia
        • Monitor thyroid function
        • “Lithium does everything that sodium will do”
        • Reaches steady state in 4-5 days
          • Obtain level 2-8 hours post-dose
          • Toxicity:
            • Mild (serum levels 1.5-2):
              • GI upset (N/V/D), muscle weakness, fatigue, fine hand tremor, difficulty with concentration & memory
            • Moderate (2-2.5):
              • Ataxia, lethargy, nystagmus, worsening confusion, severe GI upset, coarse tremors, increased deep tendon reflexes
            • Severe (>3):
              • Severely impaired consciousness, coma, seizures, respiratory complications, death
        • Dosage forms: capsules, syrup, tablet (IR, CR, slow release)
        • DI:
          • Increase Li levels:
            • NSAIDS
            • ACEI
            • Fluoxetine
            • Metronidazole
            • Diuretics
            • Sodium depletion: low sodium diet, excessive sweating, vomiting/diarrhea, salt deficiency
          • Decrease Li levels:
            • Theophylline
            • Caffeine
            • Pregnancy
            • Osmotic diuretics (mannitol, urea)
        • Pregnancy category: D
      • Divalproex sodium (Depakote)
      • Carbamazepine (Tegretol)
    • Tourette’s Syndrome:
      • Simple tics & 1st line of therapy is short acting benzodiazepines
      • Next is clonidine which does not cause tardive dyskinesia in these patients
      • Intermediate acting benzodiazepines (Ativan) are also useful
      • For severe cases, the choice is an antipsychotic such as haloperidol (Haldol) or pimozide (Orap) but these can cause tardive dyskinesia, dysphoria, & pseudoparkinson’s
    • Anon-sedating anxiolytic for the elderly: buspirone (Buspar)
      • Has a high affinity for 5-HT & dopamine receptors
      • Does not affect benzodiazepine GABA receptors

    Questions:
    • Mother has gestational diabetes, what is likely to occur when the baby is born. Mother also has epilepsy & is taking tegretol.
      • I. high birth weight II. Baby may have congenital abnormalities III. Baby is likely to have diabetes
      • Answer: I & II
      • Tegretol is a class D drug
    • What strength will Albuterol 0.5% end up based on an order to mix it with 2.5 mL normal saline?
      • 0.083%
    • Isosorbide dinitrate is dosed BID, what regimen is best 7 am & 12 noon, 7 am & 7 pm, 9 am & 9 pm, 8 am & 5 pm?
      • 8 am & 5 pm to allow nitrate free period (same as removing NTG patches at bedtime)
    • What substitute can you use for desitin ointment (Balmex, Boudreaux’s Butt Paste)?
      • Zinc oxide
    • Precose counseling information:
      • I. Take 30 minutes before meal II. Causes gas III. Should not take if meal skipped
      • Answer: II & III
    • What treatment would increase antibiotic compliance? Patient receiving zithromax 1 tsp QD x 5days
      • Augment, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime axetil, doxycycline
      • Answer: the usual method to improve compliance for any type of drug is to reduce the number of doses that must be taken each day & to give a drug with the fewest uncomfortable or dangerous SE (I would chose ceftriaxone- IM single dose treatment)
    • Which of the following could you give a patient on NTG?
      • I. Cialis II. Muse (alprostadil) III. Caverject (alprostadil)
      • Answer: II & III- alprostadil is prostaglandin used for erectile dysfunction & patent ductus arteriosus
        • Available as: intracavernosal Kit, intracavernosal powder for solution, intracavernosal solution, intraurethral Suppository, & intraurethral solution
        • Alprostadil (Prostin VR)
    • Patient requesting antihistamine eye drop & having a dark spot in vision- refer to MD
    • Which of the following is available in a liquid formulation?
      • I. NTG II. Hydroxyzine III. Digoxin
      • Answer: II & III
    • Which is the shortest acting insulin?
      • Humulin N, Humulin U, Humalog, or regular
      • Answer: Humalog
    • Who should not get a flu shot?
      • An infant in day care; 32 yo type II diabetic; 65 yo retired lady; 35 yo nurse working in hospital
        • Answer: 32 yo type II diabetic
    • Which of the following cannot be self monitored?
      • Glucose level; K level; cholesterol levels; hormone used in pregnancy test
      • Answer: K levels
    • Cytoxan is most similar to mechlorethamine, procarbazine, or 5-FU?
      • Answer: mechlorethamine
    • A patient with Traveler’s diarrhea too PeptoBismol 4 tsp Q ½ hour. After 3 days he began experiencing ringing in the ears. What does he have? Bismuth toxicity or salicylate toxicity?
      • Answer: salicylate toxicity
      • Bismuth toxicity would cause neurotoxicity
    • Which of the following are OTC hemorrhoid treatments:
      • I. TUCKs pads II. Nupercainal ointment III. Rowasa
      • Answer: I & II
    • Which of the following is an ER Morphine?
      • A. MSIR B. MS Contin C. Diluadid D. Oxycontin
      • Answer: B
    • Which of the following agents should be administered to a person exposed to Anthrax?
      • A. Flagyl B. Cipro C. Zovirax D. Valtrex
      • Answer: B
    • Erythromycin exhibits its anti-infective properties by- blocking protein synthesis via binding & inhibition of the 50-S subunit of bacterial ribosomes
    • Patient has pseudomembranous colitis & allergy to metronidazole. Which of the patient’s medications could have caused the pseudomembrane colitis?
      • A. Ibuprofen B. Tylenol C. Flagyl D. Cleocin E. Zantac
      • Answer: D
      • This person could be treated with?
        • A. Flagyl B. Vancomycin C. Doxycycline D. Lincomycin E. Ampicillin
        • Answer: B
      • The DOC for the treatment of pseudomembraneous colitis is:
        • A. Metronidazole B. Erythromycin C. Clindamycin D. Ampicillin E. Lincomycin
        • Answer: A
    • Which of the following NSAIDs has an ophthalmic preparation:
      • A. Ibuprofen B. Naproxen C. Diclofenac D. Ketoprofen
      • Answer: C- Voltaren
    • Cedax acts by- inhibiting the use of pencillin binding proteins in bacterial cell wall synthesis
    • Acetylcysteine in the treatment of CF is best given:
      • A. IV B. By inhalation C. IM D. Orally
      • Answer: B
    • A patient is given a rx for fentanyl 100 mcg/hr patch for 1 month. How many boxes should you dispense?
      • A. 1 B. 2 C. 3 D. 4 E. 5
      • Answer: 2; 1 patch= 3 days, so you need 10 patches; comes in boxes of 5 patches so you need 2
    • Which of the following is not an erythropoetin formulation?
      • A. Epogen B. Procrit C. Aranesp D. Neupogen
      • Answer: Neupogen
    • Which of the following fluoroquinolones has an otic preparation?
      • Answer: ofloxacin (Floxin- also has an ophthalmic);
      • Eye drops only: levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin
    • The use of this agent is CI in children?
      • A. Erythromycin B. Bactrim C. Ciprofloxacin D. Cephalexin
      • Answer: C
    • What is the recommended daily dosage of calcium for an adult?
      • A. 300-500 mg B. 600-800 mg C. 800-1000 mg D. 100-1500 mg
      • Answer: D
    • Due to difficulty in coordinating their inhalations, older patients should use:
      • A. Nebulizer B. Peak flow meter C. Spacers D. Spirometer
      • Answer: C
    • Monitoring of asthma at home can be done with:
      • A. Nebuli
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  10. #10
    Within my grasp!
    Join Date
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    Good post? Yes | No
    Quote Originally Posted by Hebes123 View Post
    Thank you Divine06, can you post the link? The words are kind of difficult to read in your post.
    There is a way to change it to the normal format.
    Copy all the information you want from this forum, on you desktop,right click your mouse-choose new-text document, then paste them in the new text document.text- then rename the text document to text.html , then all the symbols will disappear and back to normal format. if you want, you can copy and paste it into the word file.

    Hope it helps
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