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Re: About funding and cost of living
First question: You should search for this question in an online community for Madrid. For example, in Quora. There's a very small sample of people from Madrid on this forum, and you need a large sample for such an ambiguous lifestyle question.
Second question: I'm guessing here that you're asking this question because you want to negotiate. It's hard to know whether a specific department allows negotiations (this is something most people are asked not to disclose). But the possibility isn't important for your decision-making, because the cost of asking them is near zero. What's more important is whether you have any bargaining power, i.e. another funded offer with higher purchasing power. If yes, then simply go ahead and try to ask for a raise to the same level, and offer the explanation that you want to go to Carlos III but have a dependent and the financial difference is important for your decision.