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Re: Want Some Advice about my profile
Applicants with your background are not uncommon. I'll give you a concise evaluation: this type of profile has a very low chance at directly leading to a funded offer in any of the top 40 or so ranked PhD programs. There are simply way too many qualified applicants relative to # of spots per year. A typical 1st/2nd tier PhD program enrolls 10-30 students per year and 60%+ of them have foreign degrees. And there are many state schools and LACs without PhD programs, but which produce qualified applicants for PhD econ as well. This means, roughly speaking, for people from top undergrads like you, you'll need to be the best 3-5 econ undergrads from your own year to get a good chance at a PhD econ program of the same rank.
However, I don't think this should actually matter to your decision (i.e. I think you're asking the wrong question); almost all US undergrads tend to move laterally or downward in ranking when they apply to PhD programs, and we're talking about a highly self-selected demographic with 3.8+ GPA in their econ major and usually a math major as well. The objective isn't to get into a high-ranked program, but to get into the best possible program *if* you're sure you want to pursue a career that requires a PhD in economics. Unless you give us some more context about your career interests, I don't think we can confidently tell you whether it's a good idea or not to try to get into a PhD econ program, and whether to invest into a master's for that path. I'll say this: if I am in your shoes right now, I'd put continuing your banking career as the first option, seeking a PhD in political science or public policy as the second option, and seeking a PhD in economics or finance as the third option.