1.C 2.D 3.A 4.D 5.C
In early Colonial America settlers used makeshift shelters, the most primitive of which was the dugout, like a cave dug into the side of a hill, sometimes built up with sod and covered over with poles and bark. Somewhat more ambitious was the palisade hut, or cabin, built of upright poles driven into the ground, woven with wattles, clinked with clay, and roofed with turf or thatch. The "wigwam" may be derived from the building traditions of local Indians. These were constructed by bending and tying stripped saplings into a vault, inter weaving them with twigs, and covering them with bark. The interior might also be insulated with straw. Only the iron cooking pots they had brought with them gave any indication of the advanced technology out of which these people had come. Most of the New England settlers came from the rural areas of East Anglia, and the Gothic building forms of that region were transplanted, though modified by local conditions and materials. The framed half-timbered house in America continued a long medieval European tradition of carpentry construction. The heavy timbers were intricately joined and pegged into a rigid timber interlocking frame.
In the beginning, most houses consisted of one room and an attic, with a fireplace on a short wall. Roofs were shingled or thatched and chimneys were made of logs daubed with clay. This type was long continued in use by poorer inhabitants, new arrivals, and those who pushed on into the wilderness. For the more affluent, the earlier form was soon supplanted by the so-called "classic" type. It bad two stories and an attic, two rooms to a floor, one on either side of a central chimney built of brick. Brick and stone buildings were rare at first in the colonies because of the shortage of lime for mortar. Even when masonry houses began to symbolize status, New England retained throughout the Colonial period a preference for its earlier wood tradition.
The major English variant from the New England cottage was the plantation house of the southern colonies. The same Gothic traditions prevailed there, but because of the difference in economic and social life and background of these colonists, their architecture tended to imitate the English manor house rather than the yeoman's cottage. Also, these settlers came from different areas of England, bringing with them a greater variety and preference for brick.
1. The word g somewhath in line 3 is closest in meaning to
2. The gwigwamh is mentioned in line 5 as an example of a building form
(a) made into a hillside
(b) more ambitious than a dugout
(c) without inside walls that might help to insulate
(d) possibly developed from those of the earlier inhabitants
3. The word ginsulatedh in line 7 is closest in meaning to
4. The word gthemh in line 8 refers to
(a) cooking pots
(b) advanced technology
5. The word gthoseh in line 16 refers to
(a) poorer inhabitants
(b) new arrivals
(c) who pushed on
(d) the more affluent
6. It can be inferred from the passage that Southern Colonists
(a) developed their housing style to meet basic needs rather than develop a new community with its own traditions
(b) were more influenced by the English system of social classes than the New England Colonist
(c) had a preference for timber because it helped to clear the land for large plantations
(d) came from the poorer areas of England.
7. Which of the following statements about early Colonial housing is NOT mentioned in the passage?
(a) the plantation house of the Southern Colonies was based on the wealthier houses in England
(b) New England continued to prefer timber rather than brick, even when masonry houses began to symbolize status
(c) the English Gothic building traditions influenced the way houses were built in both New England and the South
(d) brick and stone building were most common where the influence of English traditions was the strongest
#1, #4, and #5 are not very realistic TOEFL questions.
I love "real" TOEFL practice, but to be honest, why not practice with 3 TOEFL passages 12-14 questions each passage, with all questions answered within 60 minutes. Or 4 passages in 80 minutes. Using real authentic TOEFL practice material, not this kind of stuff. If you want your TOEFL practice to be "real", then get real!
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