View Full Version : High Frequency FPGEE Terms

11-04-2006, 06:27 PM
Hi Guys!
Let's help each other! The following is the list of high-frequency FPGEE terms. Terms that are likely to appear on FPGEE. Maybe we could all help each other by identifying each term. Each member should get information about a term using a medical dictionary or the internet, then post it here so we can make a compilation and have idea on terms that we are not familiar.
If all of us will participate, i know we can make it. I HOPE EVERYONE WILL PARTICIPATE. This is for our own benefit.

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome:
is a collection of symptoms and infections (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syndrome) in humans (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human) resulting from the specific damage to the immune system (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immune_system) caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HIV) (HIV)
Symptoms: The symptoms of AIDS are primarily the result of conditions that do not normally develop in individuals with healthy immune systems (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immune_system). Most of these conditions are infections caused by bacteria (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacteria), viruses (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virus), fungi (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fungus) and parasites (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parasite) that are normally controlled by the elements of the immune system that HIV damages
Transmission and Prevention: The three main transmission routes of HIV are sexual contact (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sexual_contact), exposure to infected body fluids or tissues, and from mother to fetus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fetus) or child during perinatal (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perinatal) period. It is possible to find HIV in the saliva (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saliva), tears (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tears), and urine (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urine) of infected individuals, but due to the low concentration of virus in these biological liquids, the risk is negligible.
Treatment: There is currently no vaccine (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HIV_vaccine) or cure for HIV (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HIV) or AIDS. The only known methods of prevention are based on avoiding exposure to the virus or, failing that, an antiretroviral treatment directly after a highly significant exposure, called post-exposure prophylaxis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post-exposure_prophylaxis) (PEP).[65] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AIDS#_note-Fan) PEP has a very demanding four week schedule of dosage. It also has very unpleasant side effects including diarrhea (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diarrhea), malaise (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malaise), nausea (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nausea) and fatigue (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatigue_%28physical%29).[73] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/AIDS#_note-PEPpocketguide)


Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Acute myelogenous leukemia
Acute nonlymphocytic leukemia
Adjuvant disease
Alzheimer’s dementia Amebiasis
Angina pectoris
Anklyosing spondylitis
Arterial disease
Arthritis bacterial
Arthritis (Crohn’s disease)
Arthritis (gouty)
Arthritis (Reiter’s syndrome)
Arthritis (Rheumatoid arthritis
Atypical angina
Avascular necrosis


Barrett’s oesophagus
Back pain (Sciatica)
Back pain (tumor)
Barlow’s syndrome
Basal cell carcinoma
Behçet’s disease
Benign prostate hypertrophy
Biliary disease
Blood cultures
Boerhaave’s syndrome
Bornholm disease
Bowen’s disease
Braxton-Hicks contractions
Budd-Chiari syndrome
Buerger’s disease
Burkitt Lymphoma


Cancer (basal cell)
Cancer (pancreatic)
Cancer (prostate)
Cancer (squamous cell)
Cardiac disease
Cardiac valvular disease
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Cauda equina syndrome
Centriacinar emphysema

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease
Chest pain
Chest x-ray
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
Chronic myelogenous leukemia
Chvostek’s sign
Click-murmur syndrome
Colles’ fracture
Combined hormone replacement
Computed tomography (CT) scan of head
Connective tissue disease
Conn’s syndrome
Coombs’ test
Cor pulmonale
CREST syndrome
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
Crohn’s disease
Cushing’s syndrome


Degenerative heart disease
Diabetes insipidus
Diabetes mellitus
Diabetic nephropathy
Dietary modification
Diffuse lymphoma
Down’s syndrome
Duchenne muscular dystrophy


Ectopic pregnancy
Electrocardiogram (ECG)
Endocrine system
Epstein-Barr virus
Erythema nodosum
Ewing’s sarcoma


Fallopian tube
Fallot’s tetralogy
Fanconi’s syndrome
Fecal incontinence
Fibromyalgia syndrome
Fibrous ankylosis
Follicle-stimulating hormone
Fuch’s corneal dystrophy
Full blood count (FBC)
Functional dyspepsia


Gamma globulin
Giant cell tumor
Gilbert’s syndrome
Glucose tolerance test
Goodpasture’s syndrome

Graves disease
Guillai-Barre’ syndrome


Hand-foot syndrome
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis
Hartmann’s solution
Heart failure
Heart rate
Helper T cells
Henoch-Schönlein syndrome
Hepatic encephalopathy
Hepatitis (A-E)
Herpes zoster
Hiatal hernia
Hirschsprung’s disease
Hodgkin’s disease
Homans sign
Hormone replacement therapy
Huntington’s chorea
Hypnotic preparations


IBD Inflammatory bowel disease
IBS Irritable bowel syndrome
Immune serum globulin
Immunoglobulins (IgE, IgG, IgM)
Infectious arthritis
Inflammatory bowel disease
Interleukin (I), (II)
Interstitial cystitis
Intramedullary tumors
Ischemic Heart Disease
Isotonic solution


Joint pain (gout)
Joint pain (psoriatic arthritis)
Joint sepsis
Jevenile rheumatoid arthritis


Kaposi’s sarcoma
Kawasaki disease
Kehr’s sign
Kidney failure
Kidney stones
Kleihauer test
Korsakoff’s psychosis
Kreim test
Kupffer’s cells
Kussmaul’s respirations


Labile hypertension
Large cell carcinoma
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
Lewy body dementia
Lhermitte’s sign

Lobar pneumonia
Low back pain
Low density lipoprotein
Lumbar pain
Lupus carditis
Lupus erythematosus
Lyme disease
Lymph nodes
Lymphoid cells


Malignant melanoma
Mallory-Weiss tear
Mantoux test
Marie-Strumpell disease
Meckel’s diverticulum
Medial cartilage tear
Ménière’s disease
Metabolic acidosis
Metabolic alkalosis
Mid-stream specimen of urine
Mineral supplements
Mitral valve prolapse
Morpheamultiple myeloma
Multiple sclerosis
Munchausen’s syndrome


Neck pain
Neoplastic disease
Neurogenic back pain
Neurologic disorders
Night sweats
Nocturnal angina
Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma


Oat cell carcinoma
Orthostatic hypotension
Osteitis deformans
Overlap syndrome


Paget’s disease
Palmar erythema
Pancoast’s tumors
Pancreatic carcinoma
Parathyroid hormone
Paraneoplastic syndromes
Parkinson’s disease
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
Peripheral arterial disease

Perthes disease
Phrenic nerve
Pick’s disease
Plasma cell myeloma
Pleural pain
Posttraumatic stress disorder
Prinzmetal’s angina
Psoriatic arthropathy
Psychological support
Pulmonary edema
Pyrophosphate arthropathy




RA- Rheumatoid arthritis
Raynaud’s disease
Reactive arthritis
Referred pain
Reidel’s thyroiditis Reiter’s syndrome
Renal failure
Renal tuberculosis
Rheumatic chorea
Rheumatic fever
Right ventricular failure


Sacral pain
Serum cholesterol
Serum urea and electrolytes concentration
Sengstaken-Blakemore tube
Sex hormones
Shoulder pain
Sickle cell anemia
Sinus bradycardia
Sinus tachycardia
Sjogren’s syndrome
SLE- systemic lupu erythematosus
Spastic colitis
Stem cells
Stool culture
Stokes-Adams attacks
Swan-Ganz catheter
Systemic disease
Systolic rate


T4 cell count
Takayasu disease
Tay-Sachs disease
T lymphocytes
Thoracic aneurysms
Thyroid function tests
Thyroid gland
Tietze’s syndrome
Tissue necrosis

Tourette syndrome
Tracheal pain
Transfer factor
Tumor markers
Turner syndrome


Ultrasound abdomen
Umbilical pain
Ureter obstruction
Urinary bladder
Urinary tract infection
Urologic pain


Vaginal bleeding
Vaginal lubricant Vaginal oestrogen therapy
Vascular disorders
Venous insufficiency
Ventricular failure
Vertebral osteomyelitis
Visceral back pain
Visceral pericardium
Vital signs
Von Willebrand’s disease


Weight gain
Wenckebach phenomenon
Wernicke’s encephalopathy
Wet pleurisy
Wilson’s disease
Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome
Wright-Schober test

11-04-2006, 08:04 PM
Acromegaly (from Greek (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_language) akros "high" and megas "large" - extremities enlargement) is a hormonal (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hormone) disorder that results when the pituitary (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pituitary) gland produces excess growth hormone (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_growth_hormone) (hGH). Most commonly it is a benign hGH producing tumor derived from a distinct type of cells (somatotrophs) and called pituitary adenoma.
Acromegaly most commonly affects middle-aged adults and can result in serious illness and premature death. Because of its insidious onset and slow progression, the disease is hard to diagnose in the early stages and is frequently missed for many years.

try to pass
11-04-2006, 10:01 PM
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), also known as acute lymphocytic leukemia, is a cancer (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cancer) of the white blood cells (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_blood_cell), characterised by the overproduction and continuous multiplication of malignant (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malignant) and immature white blood cells (referred to as lymphoblasts (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lymphoblast)) in the bone marrow (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bone_marrow). It is a hematological malignancy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hematological_malignancy). It is fatal if left untreated as ALL spreads into the bloodstream and other vital organs quickly (hence "acute"). It mainly affects young children and adults over 50.
Generalised weakness and fatigue (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fatigue_%28physical%29)
Anemia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anemia)
Frequent or unexplained fever (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fever) and infections (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infection)
Weight loss and/or loss of appetite
Excessive bruising (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bruising) or bleeding (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hemorrhage) from wounds, nosebleeds (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nosebleed), petechiae (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petechiae) (red pinpoints on the skin)
Bone pain (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bone_pain), joint pains (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Joint_pain) (caused by the spread of "blast" cells to the surface of the bone or into the joint from the marrow cavity)
Breathlessness (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Breathlessness)
Enlarged lymph nodes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lymph_nodes), liver (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liver) and/or spleen (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spleen)
ALL accounts for approximately 80 per cent of all childhood leukemia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leukemia) cases, making it the most common type of childhood cancer.

11-04-2006, 10:24 PM
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), which is also known as acute myelogenous leukemia, is a cancer (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cancer) of the myeloid (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myeloid) line of white blood cells (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_blood_cell), characterized by the rapid proliferation of abnormal cells which accumulate in the bone marrow (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bone_marrow) and interfere with the production of normal blood cells (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haematopoiesis). AML is the most common acute leukemia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acute_leukemia) affecting adults, and its incidence increases with age. While AML is a relatively rare disease overall, accounting for approximately 1.2% of cancer deaths in the United States (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States),[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acute_myelogenous_leukemia#_note-cancerstats) its incidence is expected to increase as the population ages.
The symptoms of AML are caused by replacement of normal bone marrow with leukemic cells, resulting in a drop in red blood cells (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_blood_cell), platelets (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Platelet), and normal white blood cells. While a number of risk factors for AML have been elucidated, the specific cause of AML remains unclear. As an acute leukemia, AML progresses rapidly and is typically fatal in weeks to months if untreated.
Acute myeloid leukemia is a potentially curable disease; however, only a minority of patients are cured with current therapy. AML is treated initially with chemotherapy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemotherapy) aimed at inducing a remission; some patients may go on to receive a hematopoietic stem cell transplant (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stem_cell_transplant).

11-04-2006, 10:26 PM
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), which is also known as acute myelogenous leukemia, is a cancer (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cancer) of the myeloid (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myeloid) line of white blood cells (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_blood_cell), characterized by the rapid proliferation of abnormal cells which accumulate in the bone marrow (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bone_marrow) and interfere with the production of normal blood cells (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haematopoiesis). AML is the most common acute leukemia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acute_leukemia) affecting adults, and its incidence increases with age. While AML is a relatively rare disease overall, accounting for approximately 1.2% of cancer deaths in the United States (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States),[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acute_myelogenous_leukemia#_note-cancerstats) its incidence is expected to increase as the population ages.
The symptoms of AML are caused by replacement of normal bone marrow with leukemic cells, resulting in a drop in red blood cells (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_blood_cell), platelets (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Platelet), and normal white blood cells. While a number of risk factors for AML have been elucidated, the specific cause of AML remains unclear. As an acute leukemia, AML progresses rapidly and is typically fatal in weeks to months if untreated.
Acute myeloid leukemia is a potentially curable disease; however, only a minority of patients are cured with current therapy. AML is treated initially with chemotherapy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemotherapy) aimed at inducing a remission; some patients may go on to receive a hematopoietic stem cell transplant (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stem_cell_transplant).

TREATMENT:chemotherapy with cytarabine (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytarabine) (ara-C) and an anthracycline (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthracycline)

11-04-2006, 10:28 PM
Vow Bva,
What A Coincidence
Ok Let Me Take Next One.
All The Best

11-04-2006, 10:29 PM
Hi Preeti,

sorry to steal your turn. :p We post at the same time. Wow.

11-04-2006, 10:30 PM
Acute nonlymphocytic leukemia ---SAME AS ABOVE

11-04-2006, 10:35 PM
Hi Bva,
Thats Okay
Friends Have Identical Hearts !!!!!!!!

11-04-2006, 10:37 PM
Agoraphobia is a form of anxiety disorder (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anxiety_disorder), the abnormal fear of expecting or experiencing a difficult or embarrassing situation from which the sufferer cannot find an escape.

Agoraphobia can be successfully treated in many cases through a very gradual process of graduated exposure therapy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graduated_exposure_therapy) combined with cognitive therapy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_therapy) and sometimes anti-anxiety (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anti-anxiety) or antidepressant (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antidepressant) medications. Anti-anxiety medications include benzodiazepines (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benzodiazepines) such as alprazolam (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alprazolam). Anti-depressant medications which are used to treat anxiety disorders are mainly in the SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) class such as sertraline (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sertraline), paroxetine (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paroxetine) and fluoxetine (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fluoxetine).
Treatment options for agoraphobia and panic disorder (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panic_disorder) are similar.

11-04-2006, 10:58 PM
Hello Preeti, That's so sweet.

Adenocarcinoma is a form of carcinoma (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carcinoma) that originates in glandular (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glandular) tissue. To be classified as adenocarcinoma, the cells don't necessarily need to be part of a gland (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gland), as long as they have secretory properties. This form of carcinoma can occur in some higher mammals, including humans.
It can first present as an adenoma (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adenoma) (a glandular tumor that is benign (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benign).)

11-04-2006, 11:02 PM
In medicine (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medicine), adjuvants are agents which modify the effect of other agents while having few if any direct effects when given by themselves. In this sense, they are very roughly analogous with chemical catalysts (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catalyst).

In pharmacology (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pharmacology), adjuvants are drugs that have few or no pharmacological effects by themselves, but may increase the efficacy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Efficacy) or potency (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potency) of other drugs when given at the same time.
For instance, caffeine (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caffeine) has minimal analgesic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Analgesic) effect on its own, but may have an adjuvant effect when given with paracetamol (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paracetamol).

In immunology (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immunology) an adjuvant is an agent which, while not having any specific antigenic (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antigen) effect in itself, may stimulate the immune system (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immune_system), increasing the response to a vaccine (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaccine).

The terms adjuvant and neoadjuvant have special meanings in oncology (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oncology). Adjuvant therapy refers to additional treatment, usually given after surgery where all detectable disease has been removed, but where there remains a statistical risk of relapse due to occult disease. If known disease is left behind following surgery, then further treatment is not technically "adjuvant".
For example, radiotherapy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiotherapy) or chemotherapy (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chemotherapy) are commonly given as adjuvant treatments after surgery for a breast cancer. Oncologists use statistical evidence to assess the risk of disease relapse before deciding on the specific adjuvant therapy. The aim of adjuvant treatment is to improve disease-specific and overall survival. Because the treatment is essentially for a risk, rather than for provable disease, it is accepted that a proportion of patients who receive adjuvant therapy will already have been cured by their primary surgery.
Adjuvant chemotherapy is often given following surgery for colon cancer, and also following surgery for lung cancer. Adjuvant radiotherapy may be given following surgery for a number of different cancers, notably breast, prostate, and some gynaecological cancers.
Neoadjuvant therapy, in contrast to adjuvant therapy, is given before the main treatment. For example, chemotherapy that is given before removal of a breast is considered neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Finally concomitant chemotherapy refers to administering medical treatments at the same time as other therapies, such as radiation.

11-05-2006, 03:43 AM
The term Alopecia is formed from the Greek (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_language) (alopex), meaning fox (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fox). The origin of this usage is because this animal sheds its coat twice a year.
The term "bald" derives from the English word balde, which means "white."

Baldness is a trait which involves the state of lacking hair where it often grows, especially on the head. The most common form of baldness is a progressive hair thinning condition called androgenic alopecia or 'male pattern baldness' that occurs in adult (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adult) human males and some primate (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primate) species. The severity and nature of baldness can vary greatly; it ranges from male and female pattern alopecia (androgenetic alopecia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Androgenetic_alopecia), also called androgenic alopecia or alopecia androgenetica), alopecia areata (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alopecia_areata), which involves the loss of some of the hair from the head, and alopecia totalis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alopecia_totalis), which involves the loss of all head hair, to the most extreme form, alopecia universalis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alopecia_universalis), which involves the loss of all hair from the head and the body. Treatment for alopecia has limited success. The more hair lost, the less successful the treatment will be.

It is easier to prevent the falling out of healthy hairs than to regrow hair in follicles (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hair_follicle) that are already dormant. Finasteride (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Finasteride) (marketed in the U.S. as Propecia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Propecia)) and minoxidil (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minoxidil) (marketed in the U.S. as Rogaine (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rogaine_%28drug%29), and some places as Regaine) have shown some success in partially reversing loss. However such treatments are generally ineffective at treating extreme cases of hair loss.

Surgery (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surgery) is another method of reversing hair loss and baldness, although it may be considered an extreme measure. The surgical methods used include hair transplantation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hair_transplantation), where patches of skin with hair are moved from one part of the head to another.

Topical application of ketoconazole (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ketoconazole), which is both an anti-fungal and a potent 5-alpha reductase inhibitor, is often used as a supplement to other approaches.

11-05-2006, 09:51 AM
Amyloidosis is a rare and potentially fatal disease that occurs when substances called amyloid proteins build up in your body's organs. Amyloid is an abnormal protein usually produced by cells in your bone marrow that can be deposited in any tissue or organ. Amyloidosis frequently affects the heart, kidneys, liver, spleen, nervous system and gastrointestinal tract.
Amyloidosis can affect different organs in different people, and there are many types of amyloid. The different types are defined by where the amyloid building blocks come from. The most common type of the disease, primary systemic amyloidosis, is a bone marrow disorder. Other types that come from the liver are considered familial, or inherited. In still other cases, amyloidosis may occur as a result of kidney disease in people who have undergone long-term dialysis therapy.
The exact cause of amyloidosis is unknown, and there's no cure for amyloidosis. However, medications and special diets can help you manage your symptoms and limit the production of amyloid protein.

Melphalan (Alkeran), Prednisolone.


1.The direct or indirect connection of separate parts of a branching system to form a network, especially among blood vessels.
2. The surgical connection of separate or severed tubular hollow organs to form a continuous channel as between two parts of the intestine.
3. An opening created by surgery, trauma, or disease between two or more normally separate spaces or organs.

Ankylosing Spondylitis

Ankylosing spondylitis is a form of chronic inflammation of the spine and the sacroiliac joints. The sacroiliac joints are located in the low back where the sacrum (the bone directly above the tailbone) meets the iliac bones (bones on either side of the upper buttocks). Chronic inflammation in these areas causes pain and stiffness in and around the spine. Over time, chronic spinal inflammation (spondylitis) can lead to a complete cementing together (fusion) of the vertebrae, a process referred to as ankylosis. Ankylosis leads to loss of mobility of the spine.
Ankylosing spondylitis is also a systemic rheumatic disease, meaning it can affect other tissues throughout the body. Accordingly, it can cause inflammation in or injury to other joints away from the spine, as well as other organs, such as the eyes, heart, lungs, and kidneys. Ankylosing spondylitis shares many features with several other arthritis (http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=7776) conditions, such as psoriatic arthritis (http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=460), reactive arthritis (http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=465), and arthritis (http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=7776) associated with Crohn's disease (http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=332) and ulcerative colitis (http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=509). Each of these arthritic conditions can cause disease and inflammation in the spine, other joints, eyes, skin, mouth, and various organs. In view of their similarities and tendency to cause inflammation of the spine, these conditions are collectively referred to as "spondyloarthropathies.

The treatment of ankylosing spondylitis involves the use of medications to reduce inflammation and/or suppress immunity, physical therapy, and exercise. Medications decrease inflammation in the spine, and other joints and organs. Physical therapy and exercise help improve posture, spine mobility and lung capacity.
Aspirin and other nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=9520)(NSAIDs) are commonly used to decrease pain and stiffness of the spine and other joints. Commonly used NSAIDs include indomethacin (http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=766) (Indocin), tolmetin (http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=846) (Tolectin), sulindac (http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=721) (Clinoril), naproxen (http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=795) (Naprosyn), and diclofenac (http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=859) (Voltaren). Their common side effects include stomach upset, nausea, abdominal pain (http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=1908), diarrhea (http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=1900), and even bleeding ulcers. These medicines are frequently taken with food in order to minimize side effects.

Arthralgia: Pain in the joints. There are many possible causes of pain in a joint. The Greek "algos" means "pain."

Angiogenesis: The process of developing new blood vessels. Angiogenesis is important in the normal development of the embryo and fetus. It also appears important to tumor formation. Certain proteins, including angiostatin and endostatin, secreted by tumors work (at least in mice) by interfering with the blood supply tumors need. Angiostatin is a piece of a larger and very common protein, plasminogen, that the body uses in blood clotting. Endostatin is a piece of a different protein, collagen 18, that is in all blood vessels.

11-05-2006, 11:48 AM
Kawasaki disease, also known as mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome, mucocutaneous lymph node disease, infantile polyarteritis and Kawasaki syndrome, is a poorly understood self-limited vasculitis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vasculitis) that affects many organs, including the skin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skin) and mucous membranes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mucous_membrane), lymph nodes (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lymph_node), blood vessel (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_vessel) walls, and the heart (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heart). It does not seem to be contagious. It was first described in 1967 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1967) by Dr. Tomisaku Kawasaki in Japan.
Children with Kawasaki disease should be hospitalized and cared for by a physician who has experience with this disease. When in an academic medical center, care is often shared between pediatric cardiology (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cardiology) and pediatric infectious disease (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infectious_disease) specialists, although no infectious agent (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infectious_agent) has been demonstrated. It is imperative that treatment be started as soon as the diagnosis is made to prevent damage to the coronary arteries (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coronary_arteries).
Intravenous (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intravenous) gamma globulin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gamma_globulin) (IVIG) is the standard treatment for Kawasaki disease and is administered in high doses with marked improvement usually noted within 24 hours.
Salicylate (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salicylate) therapy, particularly aspirin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aspirin), remains an important part of the treatment but salicylates (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salicylate) alone are not as effective as IV (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intravenous) gamma globulin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gamma_globulin). Aspirin therapy is started at high doses until the fever subsides, and then is continued at a low dose when the patient returns home. Except for Kawasaki disease and a couple of other indications, aspirin is otherwise normally not recommended for children due to its association with Reye's syndrome (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reye%27s_syndrome).
Corticosteroids (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corticosteroids) have also been used with some success, especially when other treatments fail or symptoms recur, but have not usually been considered a first-line therapy.

11-05-2006, 11:51 AM
An aneurysm (or aneurism) is a localized dilation or ballooning of a blood vessel (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_vessel) by more than 50% of the diameter of the vessel and can lead to instant death. Aneurysms most commonly occur in arteries (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artery) at the base of the brain (the circle of Willis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Circle_of_Willis)) and in the aorta (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aorta) (the main artery coming out of the heart (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heart)) - this is an aortic aneurysm (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aortic_aneurysm). This bulge in a blood vessel can lead to death at any time, and is much like a bulge in an over-inflated innertube. The larger an aneurysm becomes, the more likely it is to burst.
The layer of the artery that is in direct contact with the flow of blood is the tunica intima (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tunica_intima), commonly called the intima. This layer is made up of mainly endothelial cells (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Endothelial_cell). Adjacent to this layer is the tunica media (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tunica_media), known as the media. This "middle layer" is made up of smooth muscle (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smooth_muscle) cells and elastic tissue. The outermost layer (farthest from the flow of blood) is known as the tunica adventitia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tunica_adventitia) or the adventitia. This layer is composed of connective tissue (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Connective_tissue)

11-05-2006, 11:57 AM
Important questions

The activity of a radio active drug is 20 mCu. Half life of the drug is 6hrs. What is the activity of the drug after 18 hrs?
In clinical trials what is the shape of the curve when the pharmacological effect is plotted linearly against dose?{ hyperbolic, straight line, sigmoid,..}

which of the following is a virus.. (rubeola)
which of the following increases bleeding with warfarin….(Ginseng)
Which of the following are more susceptible to Osteoporosis..( Females)
Drug abuse is higher in which of the following age group?(1-10yrs, 16-21yrs, 30-50yrs,..)

Health care expenditure is higher is among which age group?(1-10yrs, 40-55yrs, last year of the life,..)

Aspirin poisoning is reduced by tight closures of the containers and,..?(child dose is reduced to 3mg, aspirin is supplied in bottles of 100, the tablets are made in such a way that children can’t swallow,…)

Recommendations for patients taking penicillamine..? (Take with empty stomach)
Long acting NSAID..(Piroxicam)
Aids patients with CD4 count 200 infected by Pneumocistis cariini Pneumonia(PCP) is treated by..( Sulfamethoxazole+Trimethoprim)
Treament for SLE (colchicin, indomethacin,…)
In an inflammatory reaction chemical mediators are released from.. (netrophils, oesinaphils, .., mast cells)
Respiration in the cell takes place in…(Mitochondria)
Ribosomes are found in..(Golgi bodies, cytosol, nucleus,lysosome)
Mepiridine is from which class of drugs..( Piperidines)
Sodium Valproate acid structure
Use of computer in pharmacy in best justified by..( efficient record-keeping, required by law, …,…)
Computer use in pharmacy is not justified in which of the following cases..(record-keeping
Influenza can be given be given in which month in North of the Equator
which drug is used as a scrotal patch..(testosterone, alprostadil,…,….)
Treatment for carbon monoxide poisoning..(Oxygen)
What will u do when INR level in Warfarin treatment is 12..? (give vit K)
what is the long term censequence of diabetes .peripheral neuropathy
rosiglitazone side effects
question on carrier transport
what is proximal part of intestine
where does respiration take place in cell
where are ribosomes located in cell
zeta potential
in strokes law to decrease sedimentation rate what should not be done. 1particle size 2viscosity 3 density of dispersion medium
32.to prevent aggregation of particles what should be used ?surfactant

11-05-2006, 11:58 AM
can any body answer this question please.
Influenza can be given be given in which month in North of the Equator

11-05-2006, 12:01 PM
Sorry for not posting alphabetically, I just search terms that I'm interested.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE or lupus) is a chronic Type III Hypersensitivity (Systemic Immune Complex Disease) with potential Type II Hypersentivity involvement, potentially debilitating and sometimes fatal autoimmune disease (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autoimmune_disease) in which the immune system (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immune_system) attacks the body’s cells and tissue, resulting in inflammation and tissue damage. SLE can affect any part of the body, but often harms the heart (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heart), joints (rheumatological) (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rheumatology), skin (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skin), lungs (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lungs), blood vessels (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_vessels) and brain (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brain)/nervous system (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nervous_system). Lupus is treatable, mainly with immunosuppression (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Immunosuppression), though there is currently (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/As_of_2006) no cure for it.

The standard treatment has been a limited group of drugs (primarily Corticosteroids (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corticosteroids), and chemotherapy drugs).

11-05-2006, 12:41 PM
which test should be monitor for the patient if it is on the propyl thiouracil therapy

11-05-2006, 01:47 PM
Angina pectoris

is chest pain (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chest_pain) due to ischemia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ischemia) (a lack of blood and hence oxygen (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxygen) supply) of the heart muscle (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myocardium), generally due to obstruction or spasm of the coronary arteries (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coronary_artery) (the heart's blood vessels). Coronary artery disease (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coronary_artery_disease), the main cause of angina, is due to atherosclerosis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atherosclerosis) of the cardiac arteries
Treatment: Asiprin, Ca Channel blocker, Beta blocker


is the physiological process involving the growth of new blood vessels (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_vessel) from pre-existing vessels.
Angiogenesis is a normal process in growth and development, as well as in wound healing. However, this is also a fundamental step in the transition of tumors (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tumor) from a dormant state to a malignant (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malignant) state.Anxiety

is a complex combination of emotions that includes fear (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fear), apprehension (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apprehension) and worry (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Worry), and is often accompanied by physical sensations such as palpitations (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palpitation), nausea (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nausea), chest pain and/or shortness of breath (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shortness_of_breath).
Treatmet: Benzodiazepines, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.....

11-05-2006, 02:15 PM

Atherosclerosis is a disease affecting the arterial blood vessel. It is commonly referred to as a "hardening" or "furring" of the arteries. It is caused by the formation of multiple plaques within the arteries.
Treatment: Patients at risk for atherosclerosis-related diseases are increasingly being treated prophylactically with low-dose aspirin and a statin.
Factors that may increase risk
Advanced age
Male sex
Diabetes or Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) +
Dyslipidemia (elevated serum cholesterol or triglyceride levels): Tobacco smoking
Having high blood pressure +
Being obese (in particular central obesity, also referred to as abdominal or male-type obesity) +
A sedentary life-style
Having close relatives who have had some complication of atherosclerosis (eg. coronary heart disease or stroke)
Elevated serum levels of homocysteine
Elevated serum levels of uric acid (also responsible for gout)
Elevated serum fibrinogen concentrations +
Chronic systemic inflammation as reflected by upper normal WBC concentrations, elevated hs-CRP and many other blood chemistry markers, most only research level at present, not clinically done.[2]
Stress or symptoms of clinical depression
Hypothyroidism (a slow-acting thyroid)
Arthritis bacterial

Septic arthritis is the proliferation of bacteria in joints and resultant inflammation. Bacteria are either carried by the bloodstream from an infectious focus elsewhere or are introduced by a skin lesion that penetrates the joint.
Diagnosis is by aspiration (giving a turbid, non-viscous fluid), Gram stain and culture of fluid from the joint, as well as telltale signs in laboratory testing (such as a highly elevated neutrophils (approx. 90%), ESR or CRP).
Therapy is usually with intravenous antibiotics, analgesia and washout/aspiration of the joint to drynessArthritis (gouty)

Gout (also called metabolic arthritis) is a disease due to an inborn uric acid metabolism. In this condition sodium urate crystals are deposited on the articular cartilage of joints and in the particular tissue like tendons. This provokes an inflammatory reaction of these tissues. These deposits often increase in size and burst through the skin to form sinuses discharging a chalky white material.
Arthritis (Rheumatoid arthritis)

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is traditionally considered a chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to attack the joints. It is a disabling and painful inflammatory condition, which can lead to substantial loss of mobility due to pain and joint destruction. RA is a systemic disease, often affecting extra-articular tissues throughout the body including the skin, blood vessels, heart, lungs, and muscles.

11-05-2006, 03:38 PM

Male pattern baldness is characterized by hair receding from the lateral sides of the forehead, known as "receding hairline" or "receding brow." An additional bald patch may develop on top (vertex). The trigger for this type of baldness (called androgenic alopecia because it is caused by male hormones or androgens (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Androgens)) is DHT (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dihydrotestosterone), a powerful sex hormone.[1] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alopecia#_note-0)
The mechanism by which DHT accomplishes this is not yet understood. In genetically-prone scalps, DHT initiates a process of follicular miniaturization. Through the process of follicular miniaturization, hair shaft width is progressively decreased until scalp hair resembles fragile vellus hair (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vellus_hair) or "peach fuzz" or else becomes non-existent. Onset of hair loss sometimes begins as early as end of puberty (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Puberty), and is mostly genetically (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetics) determined. Male pattern baldness is classified on the Hamilton-Norwood scale (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hamilton-Norwood_scale) I-VIII.


11-05-2006, 04:00 PM
Barrett's oesophagus

Barrett's oesophagus is a condition in which abnormal cells develop on the inner lining of the lower part of the gullet (oesophagus).


The main cause of Barrett's oesophagus is juices from the stomach 'splashing' up into the oesophagus. The stomach produces acid, and the stomach juices also contain bile and proteins, which help to digest food. The stomach is lined by tissue that is resistant to acid, but the oesophagus is not. Normally, a valve at the bottom of the oesophagus prevents acid from splashing up into the gullet. However, some people have a weak valve, which allows the acid to flow backwards into the oesophagus.The acid may inflame and irritate the oesophagus, and, in some people, will cause symptoms of pain and heartburn. This is often referred to as reflux oesophagitis.
Certain factors can make people more likely to have reflux, and these include being overweight, smoking, and excessive alcohol consumption. For some people, spicy, acidic, or fatty foods can cause reflux. Reflux is often also caused by a small piece of the stomach being displaced and poking through the sheet of muscle which divides the chest from the abdmen (a hiatus hernia).
The most common symptom is ongoing heartburn and indigestion. Other symptoms include feelings of sickness (nausea), being sick (vomiting) (http://www.cancerbackup.org.uk/Resourcessupport/Symptomssideeffects/Othersymptomssideeffects/Nauseavomiting) and difficulty swallowing food. Less commonly, there may be blood in the vomit or stools (bowel motions). Some people have pain on swallowing food.
Sometimes it is possible to reduce the reflux without treatment. Losing weight (if necessary), stopping smoking, or drinking less alcohol may help. Eating small meals at regular intervals, or avoiding foods that aggravate the symptoms, can also help to reduce reflux. If you suffer with reflux at night, it can help to raise the head of the bed.

You may be given medicines known as proton pump inhibitors (PPI), to decrease the production of stomach acid. This will help to reduce any symptoms that you have. Once the symptoms are controlled, the dose of your PPI may be reduced to a level that keeps the symptoms from recurring. PPIs are often taken for life, and are very safe to take long-term.

Surgery (http://www.cancerbackup.org.uk/Treatments/Surgery) can be carried out to help strengthen the valve at the bottom of the oesophagus, to prevent further acid reflux, or to remove the affected area.

11-05-2006, 06:28 PM
Wow thats a good work.......I prepared some terms when studying cpr.Hope this helps guys........

1)Atorvastatin and rosuvastatin can be taken at any time of day, but the other statins should be taken in the evening

2)Why is it known as Lou Gehrig's Disease?

Lou Gehrig, a famous baseball player in the U.S. during the 1930's, became afflicted with ALS. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS
ALS is a progressive disorder of the nervous system which causes degeneration in both upper and lower motor neurons and results in muscle weakness. The loss of lower motor neurons leads to weakness, twitching of muscles (fasciculations), and loss of muscle bulk (atrophy). The loss of upper motor neurons causes stiffness, cramping, and weakness

3)The first oral (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=4655) drug found to be effective for treating kala-azar is miltefosine.

4)Definition of Kala-azar

Kala-azar: A chronic (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=2728) and potentially fatal parasitic (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=11869) disease of the viscera (the internal organs, particularly the liver (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=4179), spleen (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=5531), bone marrow (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=4286) and lymph nodes (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=4213)) due to infection by the parasite called Leishmania (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=4128) donovani

5) Autism is a complex developmental disability that typically appears during the first three years of life and is the result of a neurological disorder that affects the normal functioning of the brain, impacting development in the areas of social interaction and communication skills. Both children and adults with autism typically show difficulties in verbal and non-verbal communication, social interactions, and leisure or play activities. a milder form of the disorder that became known as Asperger syndrome

6)what is diplopia?
a) Double vision, also called diplopia, causes a person to see two images of a single object. There are two types of double vision: monocular and binocular.

7) Astigmatism (http://www.intelihealth.com/IH/ihtIH/WSIHW000/28067/28108/210867.html?d=dmtHealthAZ) — This is an abnormal curvature of the front surface of the cornea

8) Myasthenia gravis (http://www.intelihealth.com/IH/ihtIH/WSIHW000/9339/31055/210325.html?d=dmtHealthAZ) — This is a neuromuscular illness that causes the body's muscles to tire easily and become weak. It occurs because the body's immune system mistakenly attacks the places where nerves transmit impulses to muscles, telling the muscles to contract.

9) Graves' disease (http://www.intelihealth.com/IH/ihtIH/WSIHW000/9339/11082/270398.html?d=dmtHealthAZ) — This is the most common cause of an overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism). (http://www.intelihealth.com/IH/ihtIH/WSIHW000/9103/11133/197422.html?d=dmtHealthAZ) Some people with Graves' disease develop double vision due to swelling and thickening of the muscles that move the eyes within the eye socket.
10) Pterygium — This is a thickening of the conjunctiva, the thin mucous membrane that lines the inner surface of the eyelids and the whites of the eyes. The thickening extends to the cornea, the clear part of the surface of the eye.
11) Ataxia is unsteady and clumsy motion of the limbs (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Limb) or trunk (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Torso) due to a failure of the gross coordination of muscle (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muscle) movements.

12) Adams-Stokes syndrome - recurrent sudden attacks of unconsciousness caused by impaired conduction of the impulse that regulates the heartbeat.also called as atrioventricular block

13) Dysarthria

After a stroke or other brain injury, the muscles of the mouth, face, and respiratory system may become weak, move slowly, or not move at all. The resulting speech condition is called dysarthria. The type and severity of dysarthria depends on which area of the nervous system is affected

14) Stevens-Johnson Syndrome is a potentially deadly skin disease that usually results from a drug reaction. Another form of the disease is called Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis, and again this usually results from a drug-related reaction. Both forms of the disease can be deadly as well as very painful and distressing. In most cases, these disorders are caused by a reaction to a drug, and one drug that has come under fire lately is the cox-2 inhibitor Bextra, which is already linked to these disorders.
15) Petechia: is a small red or purple spot on the body, caused by a minor haemorrhage (broken capillary (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capillary)blood vessels (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood_vessel)). Forceful coughing (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cough) or vomiting (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vomiting) can cause facial petechiae, especially around the eyes. Newborns often have facial petechiae from the tight squeeze through the cervix (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cervix). Thus petechiae are fairly common and in general of no concern

16) Cushing's Syndrome
Cushing's syndrome is a hormonal disorder caused by prolonged exposure of the body's tissues to high levels of the hormone cortisol

17) Hematemesis (American English) or haematemesis (International English) is the vomiting (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vomiting) of fresh red blood (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blood).

18)What Is Behçet’s Disease?
Behçet’s (BAY-sets) disease is an illness that causes symptoms in various parts of the body. The more common symptoms include sores in the mouth and on the genitals (sex organs). More serious symptoms can include inflammation (swelling, heat, redness, and pain) in the eyes and other parts of the body.
19) What is Paget’s disease?

Paget’s (pronounced paj-ets) disease affects bones.
Throughout a person’s life bone is constantly breaking down and growing back. With Paget’s disease the normal process of bone growth is changed. The bone breaks down more quickly, and when it grows again it is softer than normal bone.
20)Guthrie test: A simple screening blood test for phenylketonuria (http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=1942) (PKU). The Guthrie test was the original impetus to newborn metabolic screening.
21)Mantoux testa Tuberculosis (TB) test

Lyme disease is an infection that's spread by Ixodes ticks (black-legged or deer ticks in the eastern United States, and western black-legged ticks in the west) that carry the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. These ticks acquire the bacteria from mice and then infect humans by biting them and passing the bacteria into a person's bloodstream.
22)Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) is a rare disorder that causes tumors in the pancreas and duodenum and ulcers in the stomach and duodenum

23) Wilson's disease: It is primarly caused by an acumulation of copper in tissues all over the body, mainly in the liver, brain, kidneys and cornea
24) onchocerciasis: Onchocerciasis is a chronic parasitic disease caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus. Infection affects multiple organ systems, but the greatest morbidity is due to cutaneous and ophthalmologic complications. The disease is often called river blindness
25) Mazzotti reaction: Onchocerciasis patients treated with diethylcarbamazine often undergo a severe inflammatory response, the Mazzotti reaction

26) Ascaris: affects human populations, typically in tropical areas with poor sanitation. This infection is known as ascariasis (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ascariasis). It is spread by the accidental ingestion of Ascaris eggs, which are produced in the lower intestine and distributed through feces (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Feces). The ingested eggs develop into larva and mature in the small intestine. It may also cause obstruction of the intestine or the bile duct. The larva can also migrate through the lungs and cause cough
27) Tinea Cruris

Jock itch, also known as tinea cruris (http://dermatology.about.com/library/bldeftincrur.htm), is a fungal infection of the skin in the groin. The warm, moist environment is the perfect place for the fungus to grow. Anything that enhances that environment puts the person at risk of getting jock itch. Therefore, wearing sweaty, wet clothing in the summer time or wearing several layers of clothing in the wintertime causes an increased incidence of jock itch. Men are affected more often than women
28) Michaelis-Menten equation: Start with the generalised scheme for enzyme-catalysed production of a product (P) from substrate (S). The enzyme (E) does not magically convert S into P, it must first come into physical contact with it, i.e. E binds S to form an enzyme-substrate complex (ES).

All the best to everyone.......

11-06-2006, 03:03 PM
can any body answer this question please.
Influenza can be given be given in which month in North of the Equator
influenza vaccine is given in November. in North hemosphere(North of the Equator) you can contract influenza in winter months: December, January, Fabruary.
as opposite to southern hemosphere( south america, australia) where they contract influenza in there winter months: June, July, August.

11-06-2006, 04:31 PM
According to my understanding, in North America, influenza (flu) shots are given from mid-October to November and one is prone to contract flu from mid-October to April.

Pls. correct me if I am wrong. This is what it is said here in Canada.