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amdcenter2000
11-13-2006, 04:47 PM
1. an economic market that includes many buyers and sellers with easily transferable resources , complete information available to consumers and a standard product at current market rate is known as
a pure monopoly
pure competition
monopolistic competition
oligopolistic competition

2.when relative adrenergic effects r compared which of drugs given in normal doses has least b2 adrenergic effect
terbutaline, isoetharine, epinephrine or norepinephrine

3.drug absoprtion from duodenum is primarily caused due to
osmotic pressure, donnan membrane equilibrium, a concentration gradient across membrane or an active transport mechanism

4.in which of the following reactions does pyridoxal phosphate serve as coenzymes
transamination, transadenylation, transmethylation or transformylation

5.cyanide produces its toxic effect by binding to which of enzyme systems
monoamine oxidase, cytochrome oxidase, acetylcholine esterase or glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase

6.in third party prescription programs, the rationale for copayment is that it
increases profitablity, reduces over utilization, prevents fraud or shifts administrative costs

7.the clear delineation of hypotheses is important at what point in a research project
before data collection begins, while data is being collected , after data is collected or after summary data is collected

8.which of the following statement regarding medical information is true?
textbook material is the best source for all medical information
textbook material can frequently be accessed thru the internet
textbook material is frequently out of date by the time it is printed and distributed
textbook material is frequently biased
9. ingestion of petroleum distillates results in
chemical pneumonitis , metabolic acidosis , hepatic failure or hallucinations
10. patient noncompliance with medication regimen most consistently corelates with the
complexity of regimen
gender of patient
education level of patient
socioeconomic status of patient
11. when spironolactone is used a s diuretic in a patient with massive ascites , the urine may be monitored to ensure that excretion of
sodium exceeds the excretion of potassium
sodium exceeds the excretion of calcium
potassium exceeds the excretion of sodium
potassium exceeds the excretion of calcium

please answer these questions if anyone knows

Ohm
11-13-2006, 06:04 PM
Hi amd

1. an economic market that includes many buyers and sellers with easily transferable resources , complete information available to consumers and a standard product at current market rate is known as
a pure monopoly
pure competition
monopolistic competition
oligopolistic competition
is it oligopolistic, becuse it has many buyers and sellers, and complete information avialable for consumers

2.when relative adrenergic effects r compared which of drugs given in normal doses has least b2 adrenergic effect
terbutaline, isoetharine, epinephrine or norepinephrine
Norepinephrine

3.drug absoprtion from duodenum is primarily caused due to
osmotic pressure, donnan membrane equilibrium, a concentration gradient across membrane or an active transport mechanism

I guess it is concentration gradient across membrane

4.in which of the following reactions does pyridoxal phosphate serve as coenzymes
transamination, transadenylation, transmethylation or transformylation

it is co-enzyme in transamination reactions

5.cyanide produces its toxic effect by binding to which of enzyme systems
monoamine oxidase, cytochrome oxidase, acetylcholine esterase or glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase

by inactivation of cytochrome oxidase

6.in third party prescription programs, the rationale for copayment is that it
increases profitablity, reduces over utilization, prevents fraud or shifts
administrative costs

to reduce overutilization

7.the clear delineation of hypotheses is important at what point in a research project
before data collection begins, while data is being collected , after data is collected or after summary data is collected

While data being collected I guess, because hypotheses is an assumption and shouldn't bother while working on it

8.which of the following statement regarding medical information is true?
textbook material is the best source for all medical information
textbook material can frequently be accessed thru the internet
textbook material is frequently out of date by the time it is printed and distributed
textbook material is frequently biased

the thrid one

9. ingestion of petroleum distillates results in
chemical pneumonitis , metabolic acidosis , hepatic failure or hallucinations

Chemical pnemonitis

10. patient noncompliance with medication regimen most consistently corelates with the
complexity of regimen
gender of patient
education level of patient
socioeconomic status of patient

it should be all

11. when spironolactone is used a s diuretic in a patient with massive ascites , the urine may be monitored to ensure that excretion of
sodium exceeds the excretion of potassium
sodium exceeds the excretion of calcium
potassium exceeds the excretion of sodium
potassium exceeds the excretion of calcium

Massive ascitis is liver damage, and spironlolactone causes hyperkalemia.
and potassium is intracellualr, and Na is extracellular, I guess should monitor of potassim excceds the excretion of Na

Please correct me if I am wrong. Wish you very best

best Regards

Ohm

Ohm
11-13-2006, 06:26 PM
Hi friends

the first answer is Pure competition for the same reason that I illustrated.

In oligopolistic competition few large sellers accounts for large market share

Best regards

Ohm

mtvua
11-13-2006, 09:37 PM
I agree with Ohm, except
7.the clear delineation of hypotheses is important at what point in a research project
before data collection begins, while data is being collected , after data is collected or after summary data is collected

I think the answer is before data collection begins

8.which of the following statement regarding medical information is true?
textbook material is the best source for all medical information
textbook material can frequently be accessed thru the internet
textbook material is frequently out of date by the time it is printed and distributed
textbook material is frequently biased

I think the answer is 2(accessed thru the internet). I think textbooks can be sometimes out of date, but not frequently.

9. ingestion of petroleum distillates results in
chemical pneumonitis , metabolic acidosis , hepatic failure or hallucinations

as I remember methanol is petroleum distillate(correct me if I am wrong), methanol causes metabolic acidosis.

10. patient noncompliance with medication regimen most consistently corelates with the
complexity of regimen
gender of patient
education level of patient
socioeconomic status of patient
If I have to choose one, I would choose complexity of regimen

11. when spironolactone is used a s diuretic in a patient with massive ascites , the urine may be monitored to ensure that excretion of
sodium exceeds the excretion of potassium
sodium exceeds the excretion of calcium
potassium exceeds the excretion of sodium
potassium exceeds the excretion of calcium

it is potassium sparing diuretic, so K stays in the body, Na excretion increased. so in urine Na exceeds excretion of K.

amdcenter2000 where did you take this questions from?

dussamkumar
11-13-2006, 09:57 PM
no methanol is not petrolium distillate, it is alcohol, when injested it causes metabolic acidosis due to its metabolites.
but petrolium distillates cause chemical pneumonitis.
ohm is correct.

mtvua
11-13-2006, 10:03 PM
no methanol is not petrolium distillate, it is alcohol, when injested it causes metabolic acidosis due to its metabolites.
but petrolium distillates cause chemical pneumonitis.
ohm is correct.

thanks, you are right. i didn't know that.

amdcenter2000
11-13-2006, 11:35 PM
thanks to all of u who answered these questions.

khadija
11-14-2006, 04:27 AM
3.drug absoprtion from duodenum is primarily caused due to
osmotic pressure, donnan membrane equilibrium, a concentration gradient across membrane or an active transport mechanism


I think that the transport across the duodenum will be caused by an active transport mechanism, since the absorption of drugs depends of its lipophilicity or polarity , so this system of transport gonna involve ATP, protein binding , change in conformation of the protein of the memebrane....
not sure what do you think??

lite
11-14-2006, 07:12 AM
:p
3.drug absoprtion from duodenum is primarily caused due to
osmotic pressure, donnan membrane equilibrium, a concentration gradient across membrane or an active transport mechanism


I think that the transport across the duodenum will be caused by an active transport mechanism, since the absorption of drugs depends of its lipophilicity or polarity , so this system of transport gonna involve ATP, protein binding , change in conformation of the protein of the memebrane....
not sure what do you think?


i think the same too .. since osmotic pressure includes only water to be transfered within the membrane not the drug .. & i`m not sure about donnan mm equil. never heard about it .. mmm i think as they say "the less u know the better ;) " i think that`s right every where else here in the fpgee ..right :tup: ?
so the only choise left is the last choise .. what do u think ? reasanoble ?
& do u have any idea about donnan mm equil. ?

& by the way brother amdcenter .. where did u got those questions dude ????????????? u r killing me .. they are very hard ??!!
i`m just kidding :p .. i just wanted to know what`s your sources ?

fizzbizz
11-14-2006, 07:37 AM
i was doing manan q 7 A TODAY QUESTIONS FROM 550 ONWARDS..THEY GAVE ME A SEVERE HEADACHE..
HOW R WE SUPPOSED TO KNOW WHICH DRUGS HAVE MORE HALF LIFES AND DURATION OF ACTION AND WHICH HAVE LESS. PLS HELP.
getting very depressed with the vastness of our syllabus...i am still very poor in cology:(
how am i gonna writ prefpgee then?
any guidance will b deeply appreciated.

khadija
11-14-2006, 09:27 AM
:p


i think the same too .. since osmotic pressure includes only water to be transfered within the membrane not the drug .. & i`m not sure about donnan mm equil. never heard about it .. mmm i think as they say "the less u know the better ;) " i think that`s right every where else here in the fpgee ..right :tup: ?
so the only choise left is the last choise .. what do u think ? reasanoble ?
& do u have any idea about donnan mm equil. ?

& by the way brother amdcenter .. where did u got those questions dude ? u r killing me .. they are very hard ?!
i`m just kidding :p .. i just wanted to know what`s your sources ?


Hi lite,
I just came across olmost a same question in manashroff 265 they said that the drug are transported from the stomach or duodenum, by active and passive tranport. so for this question the last choice id right.
I think our freind got these question from the previouse fpgee tests.

khadija
11-14-2006, 09:30 AM
i was doing manan q 7 A TODAY QUESTIONS FROM 550 ONWARDS..THEY GAVE ME A SEVERE HEADACHE..
HOW R WE SUPPOSED TO KNOW WHICH DRUGS HAVE MORE HALF LIFES AND DURATION OF ACTION AND WHICH HAVE LESS. PLS HELP.
getting very depressed with the vastness of our syllabus...i am still very poor in cology:(
how am i gonna writ prefpgee then?
any guidance will b deeply appreciated.


dear fizzbizz,
for the duration of action of drugs, we have to know their solubility lipophilic or hydrophilic . lipophillic stay longer in the body . hydrophillic are quickely excreted.
is that helps??

mtvua
11-14-2006, 01:07 PM
no methanol is not petrolium distillate, it is alcohol, when injested it causes metabolic acidosis due to its metabolites.
but petrolium distillates cause chemical pneumonitis.
ohm is correct.
where did you learn about it from? I've never heard about it. and what exactly does petrollium distlillate mean? is it mineral oil used as laxative? i don't think they ask about gasoline igested accidently... I am completely confused about it.

amdcenter2000
11-14-2006, 01:23 PM
these r the questions of the past exams. i did not know answers so i wanted to know the answers. i could not find it from leon shargel

bva
11-14-2006, 01:53 PM
Hi lite,
I just came across olmost a same question in manashroff 265 they said that the drug are transported from the stomach or duodenum, by active and passive tranport. so for this question the last choice id right.
I think our freind got these question from the previouse fpgee tests.

Dear Khadija,

Stomach into bloodstream and duodenum into bloodstream, is it the same mechanism?
What do you think?:hmm:

fizzbizz
11-14-2006, 06:36 PM
thanks khadija i had forgotten abt that:blush: .

Ohm
11-14-2006, 08:13 PM
Hi mtuva

7.the clear delineation of hypotheses is important at what point in a research project
before data collection begins, while data is being collected , after data is collected or after summary data is collected

I think the answer is before data collection begins

I was also confused about this, I hope this is the right answer

8.which of the following statement regarding medical information is true?
textbook material is the best source for all medical information
textbook material can frequently be accessed thru the internet
textbook material is frequently out of date by the time it is printed and distributed
textbook material is frequently biased

I think the answer is 2(accessed thru the internet). I think textbooks can be sometimes out of date, but not frequently.

but most of the textbooks don't have the current information, so they are out of date. and another thing is we get the information about medication from the net but most of the time we can't access the textbook from net


10. patient noncompliance with medication regimen most consistently corelates with the
complexity of regimen
gender of patient
education level of patient
socioeconomic status of patient
If I have to choose one, I would choose complexity of regimen


11. when spironolactone is used a s diuretic in a patient with massive ascites , the urine may be monitored to ensure that excretion of
sodium exceeds the excretion of potassium
sodium exceeds the excretion of calcium
potassium exceeds the excretion of sodium
potassium exceeds the excretion of calcium

it is potassium sparing diuretic, so K stays in the body, Na excretion increased. so in urine Na exceeds excretion of K.

Hyperkalemia is a problem with spironolactione, so I thought we should monitor the potassium whlie on spironolactone since Na and K are interchangeble I thought c is correct.

Please correct the explanation, if I am wrong.

Best Regards

Ohm

dussamkumar
11-14-2006, 08:53 PM
hey you will get this type of questions only in the exam
because we stress on tough areas, but they will ask from weaker areas, that we dont even expect.
this is fpgee, you have to expect the unexpected things.
all the best for all of us.

dussamkumar
11-14-2006, 08:57 PM
Chemical pneumonitis is inflammation of the lung caused by irritation from aspirated vomitus (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vomitus), ingested gasoline (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gasoline) or other petroleum distillates (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fractional_distillation), ingested or skin adsorbed pesticides (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pesticide), gasses from electroplating (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electroplating), or other irritants. It is sometimes called a "chemical pneumonia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pneumonia)", though it is not infectious. May also be caused by the use of inhalants (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inhalants).
I hope it will clear your doubt

mtvua
11-15-2006, 12:38 PM
7.the clear delineation of hypotheses is important at what point in a research project
before data collection begins, while data is being collected , after data is collected or after summary data is collected

I think the answer is before data collection begins

I was also confused about this, I hope this is the right answer
I read some where that it should be done before, otherwise it could be influenced by data.

8.which of the following statement regarding medical information is true?
textbook material is the best source for all medical information
textbook material can frequently be accessed thru the internet
textbook material is frequently out of date by the time it is printed and distributed
textbook material is frequently biased

I think the answer is 2(accessed thru the internet). I think textbooks can be sometimes out of date, but not frequently.

but most of the textbooks don't have the current information, so they are out of date. and another thing is we get the information about medication from the net but most of the time we can't access the textbook from net
i uderstand that out of date it is something that you can't use anymore. like information about drugs that are not used anymore , e.g. if textbook says that the best drug for hypertension is reserpin. but you can treat a patient using information you learnt form textbooks.


10. patient noncompliance with medication regimen most consistently corelates with the
complexity of regimen
gender of patient
education level of patient
socioeconomic status of patient
If I have to choose one, I would choose complexity of regimen

I think complexity of regiment would be a problem for all people, so it will be the most frequent.
11. when spironolactone is used a s diuretic in a patient with massive ascites , the urine may be monitored to ensure that excretion of
sodium exceeds the excretion of potassium
sodium exceeds the excretion of calcium
potassium exceeds the excretion of sodium
potassium exceeds the excretion of calcium

it is potassium sparing diuretic, so K stays in the body, Na excretion increased. so in urine Na exceeds excretion of K.

Hyperkalemia is a problem with spironolactione, so I thought we should monitor the potassium whlie on spironolactone since Na and K are interchangeble I thought c is correct.
URINE! may be monitored. you are right it causes hyperkalemia, i.e. K stays in the body. and there is little K in urine. if you monitor blood there will be increase in K and decrease in Na.


9. ingestion of petroleum distillates results in
chemical pneumonitis , metabolic acidosis , hepatic failure or hallucinations

Chemical pnemonitis

where did you learn about it. i completely missed it. do they ask about mineral oil, if yes are there other petroleum distillates that can be ingested.
they are talking about ingestion, not aspiration, but pneumonia cause by aspiration of mineral oil. confused...:)