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Thread: GMAT Sentence Correction: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition...

  1. #21
    Ankylosaurus Forum Admin Erin's Avatar
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    Re: growth of the railroads

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    Sorry for the late reply; I've been kind of sick for the last week or so.

    I'm going to try to answer the questions one by one so I don't get confused.
    Quote Originally Posted by khushi2020
    The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observerís meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

    Here the verb is 'led'...so it is 'led to the abolition of local times and to the establishment of regional times'.
    So the phrase 'which....city' is a participle phrase?
    Actually, it's not a phrase (phrases lack a subject and a verb) but a clause (clauses are basically sentences--they have a subject and a verb), but I'm not so sure that this is terribly important at the moment.
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    Ankylosaurus Forum Admin Erin's Avatar
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    Re: growth of the railroads

    Quote Originally Posted by khushi2020
    Correct option - determined by when the sun reached the observerís meridian and differing

    Here 'determined' is the past participle (used because times is the object of determined as it answers the question 'what was determined when the sun reached the meridian?') and 'differing' is the present participle (used because times is the subject of differed as it answers the question 'what differed from city to city?')
    Yes, you seem to have the idea of subjects and objects. Notice your test questions are using passive (What was determined...?) and active voice (What differered...?). This way, if it makes sense to you, should work just fine.
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    Ankylosaurus Forum Admin Erin's Avatar
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    Quote Originally Posted by khushi2020
    If D were written like this:

    which was determined by when the sun reached the observerís meridian and differed

    it would be fine. Then determined and differed would be parallel

    Almost! You're right that we need a finite verb in here to make the elements parallel, but it's not determined and differed that are parallel; it's was determined and differed (they are both verbs/verb phrases).

    Quote Originally Posted by khushi2020
    Is this still a participle phrase? Is 'times' still the object of 'determined' and subject of 'differed'?
    A participial phrase, to put it simply, is just a group of words that starts with a participle (eating only once a day, taken just before bedtime, lost in the woods, spending more money than he should, etc.). And yes, the subjects and objects don't change.

    Nice job! It seems you've figured these things out for yourself, but feel free to ask again for clarification.
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    An Urch Guru Pundit Swami Sage
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    Re: growth of the railroads

    Ok so my head is spinning from looking at this thread again and again. Can somebody explain to my why E, the official answer is better than C.
    RD

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    Ankylosaurus Forum Admin Erin's Avatar
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    Arrow Re: growth of the railroads

    The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observerís meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

    (C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observerís meridian and differing
    Quote Originally Posted by rd_eastbay
    Ok so my head is spinning from looking at this thread again and again. Can somebody explain to my why E, the official answer, is better than C?
    If C were correct as written (which is possible grammatically), it would mean this:
    The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which were determined by when the sun reached the observerís meridian and which were differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.
    In other words, which were determined would be parallel with which were differing; or, if it were "reduced," determined and differing would be parallel.

    I think you'll agree that the verb tense of which were differing is incorrect, so C is out.

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    An Urch Guru Pundit Swami Sage
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    Re: growth of the railroads

    Thanks Erin. I understand now; looking at this with a fresh mind helps too.

    So if (C) were

    The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which were determined by when the sun reached the observerís meridian and which differed from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

    Then the sentence would be correct. Right??

    Once again, thanks a lot!

    Quote Originally Posted by Erin
    The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observerís meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

    (C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observerís meridian and differing




    If C were correct as written (which is possible grammatically), it would mean this:
    The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which were determined by when the sun reached the observerís meridian and which were differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.



    In other words, which were determined would be parallel with which were differing; or, if it were "reduced," determined and differing would be parallel.



    I think you'll agree that the verb tense of which were differing is incorrect, so C is out.
    RD

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    Re: growth of the railroads

    Answering my own question, having looked at Erin's pointer to an earlier thread. Indeed the sentence quoted below is correct.

    Quote Originally Posted by rd_eastbay
    Thanks Erin. I understand now; looking at this with a fresh mind helps too.

    So if (C) were

    The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which were determined by when the sun reached the observerís meridian and which differed from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

    Then the sentence would be correct. Right??

    Once again, thanks a lot!
    RD

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    Re: growth of the railroads

    Nice job! It seems you've figured these things out for yourself, but feel free to ask again for clarification.
    Thank you. I am truly complacent and wouldn't have taken the initiative to understand this better if you hadn't motivated me in the following sentence. (I hope this sentence is grammatically correct).

    If that doesn't clear up your doubts, could you kindly explain to me in detail what's confusing you? It'll be a lot easier for me to explain if I know what's causing you trouble.
    This is a great forum. I have learnt so much here....

  9. #29
    Ankylosaurus Forum Admin Erin's Avatar
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    Re: growth of the railroads

    So everybody's happy now? Wonderful. Let me savor the moment, LOL.
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    Re: Hard GMAT Question: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times

    hi cc2005,

    thanks for your reply.

    oh! so, should I understand that while "determined" is parallel with "differing" (based on "times" being object first and subject next), "which were determined" cannot be parallel with "differing" because it would then imply "which were differing" - a wrong usage.

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