The answer should be A.
i.) verb tense of the first phrase "solar system that is populated" is present and so out of construct, the second phrase also should be in present. so remove the B(past) and C(past perfect).
ii.) Solar system is a singular noun. so remove E cos "feature" is wrong..
iii.) Try putting the second phrase in place of the first place "a solar system that features many of the ...." against "a solar system that featuring many of the ....", where the latter is awkward. You can remove D also..