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Re: 6th year funding
It's a pendulum that swings both ways..... aside from budgetary issues.... a school could signal that taking an extra year is possible, IF it is clear that the student will be in a much better position to place well. In other words, this student seems to be on track, but for whatever reason, things haven't shaked out favorably and the extra year should help.
On the other hand, if it's clear that a student isn't moving along as they should (i.e., in terms of motivation towards completion), then an extra year is not exactly ideal. If the department allows these students to stay, a precedence is set which makes it seem okay to just delay graduation. When the pendulum swings this way, schools tend to crack down and want to move everyone out sooner than later.
As for ways to fund an extra year, it often comes to negotiation with the department. For example, are they willing to fund you freely for the extra year? Does your adviser (or a faculty member) have funds or research grants to support you? Can you work as an RA for someone? Can you teach courses for the department or TA for someone to obtain your funding? I've heard of some even going to nearby universities to teach a few courses so they could make some money to stay the extra year.
It's not an ideal situation to be in for you (the student), nor is it for the faculty (i.e., why should you be an exception, and what is that setting up for the rest of the students that follow you?).
Best of luck!