I'm assuming that your graduate school is on par with (or one of) Bonn, UPF, PSE, Tilburg and so on. The fact that you already got in a good European school will reduce your stress during the application season. In the worst case scenario, you can continue with your current program.
You have a bad grade in real analysis ii though a bad grade in a single course shouldn't harm your application much. Your crucial weakness is, in my opinion, the lack of credible research experience. If you could have done some kind of research assistantship during your undergraduate or graduate studies, at least a couple of US top20 places would be guaranteed for you. This doesn't mean of course that with these specifications you have no chances. Admission to top20 is remarkably random.