Topic: "One can best understand the most important characteristics of a society by studying its major cities." This argument is completly true with respect to past civilization but it will not hold true in the present context. My position is predicated on modern society, most of which has neutral characteristics due to effects of globalization. Hence, its better to study characteristics of rural backdrop to best understand the characteristics of a modern society. In the later stage of essay I will concede that in order to understand the political and administrative characteristics of a society its better to study major cities of the society. In recent years, due to policies supporting globization and with convenient transport facilities, the major metropoliton cities have people with roots from different societies and its difficult to understand a society by studying major cities with people from different origin. For example, by studying the people in Paris its very difficult to understand French society. Modern Paris has become home for people from different parts of the world with differnt cultural and ethnical background; and its difficult to extrapolate and understand French society by going through information about the people in paris. Adding on to the fact that rural areas are limitedly affected by globalization, countries like India has majority of its population -- about 70% -- living in rural areas. Rural areas will have most of the people with their origin mapped to the same area. These areas, majority being agricultural, along with feeding the population in major cities, will mostly conserve society's customs and rituals. Hence in order to understand a society its good to study its rural population. Excavations in Pakistan, majorly in places which was previously Harappa and Mahenjodharo, has given a good insite about Indus Valley civilization. This is true because the population was restricted to a confined outline and was not affected by popuation of any other civilization of the same time. Harappa and Mahenjodharo being the major city gave a good insite about the Indus population. Since the key political and administrative activities take place in major metropoliton cities of a society, I concede that in-order to get a good understanding about the adminstrative and political characteristics of a societies its best to study its major cities. Although its difficult to get full insight about a society by constraining ourselfs to either major cities or its rural backdrop, Its better to study rural population to best understand a society.