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  1. Woven baskets characterized by a particular distinctive pattern have previously been found only in the immediate vicinity of the prehistoric village of Palea and therefore were believed to have been made only by the Palean people. Recently, however, archaeologists discovered such a "Palean" basket in Lithos, an ancient village across the Brim River from Palea. The Brim River is very deep and broad, and so the ancient Paleans could have crossed it only by boat, and no Palean boats have been found. Thus it follows that the so-called Palean baskets were not uniquely Palean. Write a response in which you discuss what specific evidence is needed to evaluate the argument and explain how the evidence would weaken or strengthen the argument. Given that baskets similar to those found in Palea village had been found in Lithos, it cannot be concluded that the Palean baskets were not distinctive to the village of Palea. The argument that the lack of proof of a boat is rife with holes to suggest that Palean baskets were not unique to the particular village. The argument mentions the Brim river to be broad and deep without giving any details on the climatic conditions that might have been during the prehistoric times. For instance, if the villages of Palea and Lithos had experienced torrid summers that drained the Brim river leaving it completely dry, people could have easily crossed the river without the aid of a boat. Therefore, this instance gives rise to the possibility of exchanging Palean basket with the people of Lithos. Since archaeologists came to the conclusion based on no traces found of a Palean boat, there might have been reasons for the disappearance of the boats. For instance, if the Brim river was much deeper and had stronger currents compared to today, the Paleans boats might have washed away and no traces are left as of today at those sites. Since the villages were pre-historic, there might have been major floods that had washed down any form of evidence that would lead to knowhow about the boat technology that they used. Another key point that weakens the argument is that we still don't have any notion of whether there were any boats made by the villagers in Lithos. The archaeologists have only sought after Palean boats. There is a possibility that the Paleans didn't have the required boat technology that people of Lithos had developed or even mastered. If there were Lithos boats, people might have used it to visit the Palean land and take some of the baskets with them as memories or souvenirs. Thus, a lack of information about the Lithos people fails to give a complete picture of the society and technological development back then. In conclusion, although Palean baskets had been found in the land of Lithos, there shouldn't be a quick jump to a conclusion based on incomplete facts. The archaeologists should work to discover more about the Lithos people and comparing both of them come to an agreement.
  2. Scandals are useful because they focus our attention on problems in ways that no speaker or reformer ever could. Write a response in which you discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the claim. In developing and supporting your position, be sure to address the most compelling reasons and/or examples that could be used to challenge your position. Society is two-fold, benign people helping to improve society and deceptive individuals contriving to make more profits for their selfish motives. Scandals expose these immoral activities and sometimes bad characters of certain people regarded with utmost value. Therefore, the issue of scandals being a useful tool for showcasing problems that aren't mentioned by speakers or reformers is absolutely justifiable. Scandals bring out the illegal activities done by various organizations to the common masses who are unaware of these problems and they work hard together to find appropriate solutions. For instance, during the British colonization, they introduced a farming in India known as 'Indigo Farming' that increases crop production to almost double than average. However, people were unaware of the detrimental effects, like rapid decrease in the soils' nutritive properties in later years, of such a method. Later this scandal was revealed and caused farmers to revolt against this ill practice. No speaker or reformer mentioned this during their speeches, since they were more concerned about other problems like increasing prices of the crops, eliminating the middle man in their trading process and others. Hence, such scandals are necessary to expose activities that are causing latent problems or will be prime reasons for conundrums in future. Scandals also pave way for good reforms for a better future. Had the 'Indigo Farming' scandal not have been brought to limelight, there would not have been a more significant unity in struggling for India's independence from the British. Recent scandals like 'Volkswagen Emission Scandal' showed how car manufacturers exploited emission rules to make high performance cars. These cars emitted pollution beyond certain standardized benchmarks but was the common masses weren't aware of such an illegal activity until the scandal happened. Hence, with such scandals, there is a strive to improve laws that will help society coexist with Nature.It was rumoured that a lot of prominent reformers knew about this activity by Volkswagen, but didn't mention them because of the influence Volkswagen had on the automobile market. Therefore, even though reformers try to change the prevalent evil in the existing society, a lot of them are mere 'puppets' to magnanimous institutions and hence won't bring certain problems to light. In conclusion, scandals are a way to bring certain problems infront of the people. Since speakers and reformers generally talk about problems that are widely known to people so that they gain more attention, catching secret illicit activities wouldn't have been possible otherwise.
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